Formula One (partially found footage of Grand Prix races featuring fatal and/or serious accidents; 1958-1978)

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This article has been tagged as NSFL due to its discussion of fatal and serious motor racing accidents/disturbing visuals.


Programme for the 1961 Italian Grand Prix.

Status: Partially Found

Since its inception in 1950, Formula One has hosted numerous Grand Prix that have featured fatal and/or serious accidents. This article documents such races, which are confirmed to have received live or tape-delayed television coverage but have since become lost media. It should be noted that although the events' television broadcasts are lost, it does not necessarily mean the accident footage is missing as well.

1958 French Grand Prix

The 1958 French Grand Prix was the sixth race of the 1958 Formula One Season. Occurring on 6th July at the Circuit de Reims, the race was ultimately won by Ferrari's Mike Hawthorn, his last Formula One World Championship victory. The event also marked an end of an era, as it was five-time champion Juan Manuel Fangio's final Formula One race, with future champion Phil Hill making his debut. However, the race is also infamous for the fatal accident of Ferrari driver Luigi Musso.

It was the eighth running of the event in the Formula One calendar,[1] with the race lasting 50 laps.[2] The 37th French Grand Prix overall,[1] the race has been held at a variety of circuits, with the last one held at Reims occurring in 1966.[3] After the race was dropped from the schedule in 2009, it returned in 2018, being held at the Circuit Paul Ricard.[3][1]

Heading into the race, Ferrari had high confidence of success following a suspension change to its 246s.[4][5] The team was ecstatic when Hawthorn achieved pole position with a time of 2:21.7, which also set a Reims lap record.[6][4][5][2] Directly behind him was teammate Musso, with BRM's Harry Schell lining up third.[4][2][6][5] In contrast, Vanwall was struggling with overheating cars, with star drivers Tony Brooks and Stirling Moss only qualifying fifth and sixth respectively.[5][4][2] Meanwhile, Fangio competed in a new works Maserati, but faced disappointment,[4][5] qualifying eighth out of 21 competitors, though he had seemingly grown tired of driving an underpowered Maserati against up and coming drivers and cars.[6][5][2] Future champion Phil Hill made his World Championship debut in a Maserati, qualifying 13th on the grid.[5][4][2] Unlike with previous races, the field also appeared to contain a balance of green (British) and red (Italian) cars.[4]

The Race

With the starting order decided, the 1958 French Grand Prix commenced on 6th July.[2] Schell beat Hawthorn and Musso at the start, but Hawthorn managed to regain it prior to the back straight.[4][5][6][2] Schell then lost multiple places a lap later, with Ferrari's Peter Collins making it a 1-3.[4][5] However, he then lost a metal air-scoop situated above the Ferrari's magneto, which ended up behind the brake pedal.[4] He was forced to remove it on the escape road, dropping him to the back of the field.[4][5] Hawthorn controlled proceedings, and began to lap cars after 10 laps.[4][6] Suddenly, Musso suffered his fatal accident, promoting Brooks to second.[4][5][6][2] He did not remain there, as two laps later, he entered the pits with a failing gearbox, retiring on lap 16.[4][5][2] The race for second, therefore, began to emerge between Moss, Fangio, and BRM's Jean Behra.[4][6]

On lap 25, Fangio dropped out of contention to resolve gearbox issues, dropping to sixth behind Ferrari's Wolfgang von Trips and the recovering Collins.[4] He was unable to make ground due to the sheer pace of those ahead, but did move up to fifth when Behra retired on lap 40 following a fuel pump failure.[4][5][6][2] Moss was well-ahead in second, but simply could not challenge Hawthorn, who set a lap record on lap 45.[4][5][2] Hawthorn, therefore, claimed his first victory in four years, and eight points in the Drivers' Championship, with him, awarded another for the fastest lap.[4][6][5][2] Moss finished second, with von Trips taking third.[2][6][4] Collins ran out of fuel on the final lap, allowing Fangio to move into fourth despite spinning on the same lap.[4][5][6][2] This proved to be the five-time champion's final Formula One race, with Hawthorn refusing to lap the Argentine so he could complete the full race distance.[6][4][5][2] Collins pushed his car over for fifth, with Hill finishing a clean race in seventh.[4][6][2]

The result left Hawthorn level on points with Moss in the Drivers' Championship, with this also marking the Brit's final victory in the sport.[7][6][4] But despite Hawthorn's win and Fangio's last race being marked, no ceremony would occur as news spread of Musso's death.[6][4] Post-race, Fangio stated "I stopped the car in the pits and a decision was made. I would stop racing. But there was no ceremony for me and no joy for Hawthorn. I then went to the hospital to see poor Musso. But poor Musso was gone."[6]

Death of Luigi Musso

On lap 10, Musso was running in second behind Hawthorn.[8][4][5] According to Musso's girlfriend Fiamma Breschi, Musso was involved in an intra-team rivalry with Brits Hawthorn and Collins.[8] The latter pair worked together in races, as they agreed to split their winnings equally, essentially creating a two-vs-one duel with the Italian.[8] Breschi revealed Musso was running into debt heading into the race, and considering that the French Grand Prix then boasted the largest prize pot of all Formula One Grand Prix, he was seemingly placing vital importance on winning the event.[8]

Musso was only around fifty metres behind Hawthorn heading into lap 9, and in the following lap, they began to lap backmarkers.[8][4][6][5] As they approached the Courbe du Calvaire, Musso hit an inside kerb at around 150 mph.[8][5][4] According to Fangio, Musso did not give himself enough room for the corner, causing the Ferrari's front wheel to hit the kerb.[6][4][8][5] It caused the Ferrari to flip into a ditch and roll three times into a wheat field, with Musso being thrown free of the vehicle.[5][8][6][4] Musso's skull was fractured on impact; while he was airlifted to hospital by helicopter, a safety feature recently unveiled, Musso passed away from his injuries, aged 33.[8][6][5][4] The winner of the 1956 Argentine Grand Prix, Musso also achieved ten-second places in his career and was considered a "courageous and brave driver" according to Motor Sport.[8][4]

1958 Moroccan Grand Prix

The 1958 Moroccan Grand Prix was the 11th and final race of the 1958 Formula One Season. Occurring on 19th October at the Ain-Diab Circuit, the race would ultimately be won by Vanwall's Stirling Moss in controlling fashion. However, Moss' title rival Mike Hawthorn finished second in a Ferrari in his final race before retiring from Formula One, which was enough for the latter to become Britain's first World Champion over Moss by one point. The race is also infamous for the fatal accident of Vanwall's Stuart Lewis-Evans, which contributed to Vanwall's withdrawal from Formula One.

It was the first, and to date, only instance of the event being held as part of the Formula One World Championship.[9] Previously, 12 Moroccan Grand Prix were held, with the 1958 edition also marking the last time it occurred.[10][9] The Ain-Diab Circuit had previously hosted the 1957 edition that was won by Maserati's Jean Behra, but the track would be closed following the 1958 race.[11] The race marked the first time a World Championship event had been held in Africa.[12] Heading into the race, Hawthorn led the Drivers' Championship with 40 points, eight ahead of Moss.[12] To become champion, Moss needed to not only win and post the fastest lap but also have Hawthorn finish third or lower.[12][10] Meanwhile, Vanwall had already won the Constructors' Championship in the previous event, leading Ferrari 46 to 40.[10]

When Hawthorn arrived at the event, his mood darkened somewhat when he discovered his Ferrari had the number 2 painted on it, which had been used by teammates Luigi Musso and Peter Collins when they suffered their fatal accidents at the French and German Grand Prix respectively.[12] Perhaps to avoid fate, Hawthorn would swap numbers with Olivier Gendebien.[12] In qualifying, the speeds of the Vanwalls and Ferraris were clear, with Vanwall's Tony Brooks already breaking the fastest lap set the previous year, with Hawthorn a tenth of a second behind.[13] Moss initially had trouble setting a fast time, including when BRM's Harry Schell partially blocked him during one of his hot laps.[13] The next day, Moss again suffered issues when his Vanwall's engine failed, taking Brooks' car as the latter had yet to arrive on the circuit.[13] When he did, he took Stuart Lewis-Evans' car, while Lewis-Evans was forced to make do with the spare car.[13] Despite Moss setting faster times in his replacement car, it was Hawthorn who won the pole position, with a time of 2:23.1.[14][13][12][10][9] Moss was second, and happy with this due to the fact he could start his Vanwall at the centre of the front row.[13][12][14][10][9] Lewis-Evans meanwhile would start third out of 25 competitors.[12][13][14][9]

The Race

With the starting order decided, the 1958 Moroccan Grand Prix commenced on 19th October.[14] Moss and Ferrari's Phil Hill made the best starts and were side-by-side when the reached the pits, Hawthorn languishing in third and Lewis-Evans also losing a few places despite a strong start.[13][12][9][14] Hill continued to pressure Moss, but out-braked himself and ended up an escape road, dropping down to fourth.[13][12] With Hill no longer challenging, Moss began to increase the gap between himself and Hawthorn.[12][13][9][14] Hill, however, would eventually re-pass Hawthorn for second by lap 8, but encountered the F2 Cooper-Climax cars that Moss had already lapped, thus being unable to close the gap between himself and the Vanwall.[13][9] Despite Hill setting a lap record of 2:23.3, Moss was now ten seconds in front by lap 13, while Brooks began to challenge Hawthorn for third, passing him on lap 17.[13] Moss suffered a setback on lap 18 however, when he collided with lapped Maserati driver Wolfgang Seidel, taking out the Maserati while damaging his Vanwall's nose.[13][14] Nevertheless, he continued his strong pace, setting the fastest lap and leading Hill by 20 seconds.[13][9]

On lap 26, Hawthorn passed Brooks, only for the latter to regain it two laps later.[13][12] However, Ferrari had been planning for this, tasking Hill to pressurise Moss while Hawthorn could steadily maintain third.[12][13][10] The aim was to try and force a breakdown, considering the cars' general unreliability back then.[12] This worked when on lap 30, Brooks pushed too hard and suffered an engine failure.[12][13][10][14] With Lewis-Evans considerably behind, Ferrari could now allow Hill to end his pursuit of Moss, and enable Hawthorn to pass him for second.[13][12][10][9][14] The overtake occurred on lap 39, whereas it now stood, Hawthorn would become the World Champion.[13][9] With Moss around 71 seconds in front, he now required Lewis-Evans, who was in fifth, to close the gap and challenge the Ferraris.[13][12] However, Lewis-Evans would suffer his fatal accident on lap 42.[12][13][10][9][14]

Thus, despite Moss continuing to increase the gap over Hawthorn, easily winning and earning nine points in the process, it was the Ferrari driver who became the first World Champion in the end, by one point.[13][12][10][9][14] Hill finished third, with the BRMs of Jo Bonnier and Schell claiming the final points positions of fourth and fifth respectively.[13][14] This would mark Hawthorn's final Formula One event; while he stated that he wanted to go out on top, it is speculated that the death of close friend Collins had also contributed to his retirement.[12][10][9] On 22nd January 1959, Hawthorn would pass away in a road accident, aged 29.[15][10][9]

Death of Stuart Lewis-Evans

On lap 30, the event had already witnessed a major accident involving Gendebien, and the Cooper-Climaxes of Tommy Bridger and François Picard on the Brickyard Corner.[16] This resulting accident saw Gendebien and Picard suffer serious injuries.[16] 12 laps later, Stuart Lewis-Evans was running in fifth and was required by Vanwall to close the gap so as to challenge the Ferraris and ensure Moss could become champion.[12][13][10][16] Suddenly his Vanwall's engine expired, and worse its rear wheels locked, causing the car to spin off the road, somersault, and crash into trees.[17][12][13][10] The Vanwall suffered a ruptured fuel pipe which ignited and caused severe burns to Lewis-Evans.[10][12][13][17] The driver was able to escape the inferno but was forced to shield his face and moved away from marshals and firefighters that could have otherwise assisted him.[10][17][12][13]

Vanwall owner Tony Vandervell immediately flew Lewis-Evans to the Queen Victoria Hospital, where he recovered from shock.[17][12] However, the 75% burns he suffered proved too great and he passed away six days later from blood poisoning aged 29.[17][12][10][13] Having started 16 World Championship events, Lewis-Evans finished third twice, at the 1958 Belgian and Portuguese Grand Prix.[16] His small stature yet admirable personality led to him being regarded as "The Little Man with the Big Heart".[16] His fatal accident would have far-reaching consequences for Formula One's future. Firstly, with himself already having suffered from declining health, Vandervell elected to withdraw his team from Formula One out of grief.[10][12][16] Additionally, future Formula One boss Bernie Ecclestone, who was close friends with Lewis-Evans, also left the sport until 1965.[10]

1960 Dutch Grand Prix

The 1960 Dutch Grand Prix was the fourth race of the 1960 Formula One World Championship. Occurring on 6th June at the Zandvoort Circuit, the race would ultimately be won by Jack Brabham in a Cooper-Climax, where a duel between him and Lotus-Climax's Stirling Moss was decided by a granite square. The race also marked the debut of future two-time World Champion Jim Clark. However, the event is also infamous for the death of fan Piet Aalder, who was hit by BRM's Dan Gurney in an accident triggered when the BRM suffered a brakes failure.

It was the sixth running of the event within the Formula One calendar, as well as the eighth in Grand Prix history.[18] Lasting 75 laps,[19][18] the race ran on a frequent basis until being dropped from the Formula One schedule following financial difficulties in 1986.[18] Nevertheless, both the track and event would make a return to Formula One from 2021 onwards.[20]

Heading into the race, the works Lotus team needed to draft in a replacement, as John Surtees left for motorcycle racing in the Isle of Man.[21] Thus, the team brought in Jim Clark, in what marked his first World Championship event.[22][21] For qualifying, the Grand Prix's organisers attempted to make two changes to the format: Only the top 15 fastest would be allowed to compete, with the starting order decided by combining each drivers' three fastest times.[21] However, the entrants complained, forcing the organisers to revert to the original format with 20 drivers being allowed to compete.[21] The entrants also wanted guarantees that everyone would receive starting money, but the organisers held firm that only the top 15 would receive it.[21]

In qualifying, Stirling Moss was consistently the fastest in a Rob Walker-owned Lotus, with Brabham and works Lotus-Climax driver Innes Ireland being his only rivals.[21] Moss achieved pole position with a time of 1:33.2, ahead of Brabham and Ireland in second and third respectively.[23][21][19] Gurney started sixth, Drivers' Championship leader Bruce McLaren took ninth in a Cooper-Climax, while Clark would start 11th out of 21 competitors.[19][23] Moss was also given permission by Reg Parnell to drive the new Aston Martin; unlike with his Lotus, Moss was unhappy with this rather uncompetitive machine.[21] Both the Aston Martin and Scarab teams, alongside Cooper-Maserati's Masten Gregory, would withdraw prior to the race start following a dispute over receiving no prize money due to qualifying at the back of the grid.[21][23][19]

The Race

With the starting order decided, the 1960 Dutch Grand Prix commenced on 6th June.[19] Brabham made a strong start, passing Moss with Ireland facing challenges from teammate Alan Stacey.[21][22][23][19] Further back, Ferrari's Phil Hill also made a remarkable start, as he moved up to the top six after only qualifying in tenth.[21][23][19] By lap 3, Brabham was slightly ahead of Moss, while the two Lotuses continually overtook each other.[21][23] McLaren retired after eight laps following a transmission failure, and two laps later Brabham and Moss were now 17 seconds ahead of the duelling Ireland and Stacey.[21][22][23][19] Gurney was now in fifth, but would then experienced a brakes failure and suffer the accident on lap 11 that claimed Aalder's life.[22][21][23][19] On lap 17, Moss was still right behind Brabham.[21][22][23] However, his race would change when the Cooper drove over a large granite square that had already separated into two pieces.[21][22][23] As Brabham drove over it, his Cooper's rear wheel redirected the granite at the Lotus, bursting one of Moss' front tyres and smashing the wheel rim.[21][22][23] Moss was forced to pit, and would be two laps down from Brabham by the time his mechanics were finished with the pit stop, made worse when a jack was initially unable to get under the car's front suspension.[21][22][23]

Brabham was now 27 seconds ahead of Ireland and Stacey, with Moss down in 12th.[21][22][23] Future champions Clark and BRM's Graham Hill duelled for fourth.[21][22][23] Clark initially overtook Hill on lap 29, but made a mistake at the hairpin that enabled the BRM to re-pass the Lotus.[21][22][23] This occurred again a lap later, and Clark was then forced to drop back as his transmission was failing, eventually retiring on lap 43.[21][22][23][19] With drivers retiring and with him setting a new lap record, Moss had recovered to sixth.[21][22] On lap 58, Stacey retired following a transmission failure, solidifying Ireland's second place and promoting Hill to third.[21][22][19] Moss meanwhile overtook Ferrari's Wolfgang von Trips for fourth, though was now 46 seconds behind Hill.[21][22][23] Elsewhere, Brabham claimed victory and eight points in the Drivers' Championship, finally kickstarting his season after failing to score in the previous races.[22][21][23][19] Ireland finished second, while Hill took third despite Moss' comeback that saw him set a lap record of 1:33.8.[21][22][23][19] This marked Ireland and Hill's first podiums in the World Championship.[24] Von Trips and teammate Richie Ginther claimed the final points positions of fifth and sixth respectively, albeit a lap down from Brabham.[23][19][21]

Death of Piet Aalder

On lap 11, Gurney was running in fifth in his BRM.[22][23][21] As he reached the Tarzan hairpin, a pipe connected to the BRM's rear brakes failed.[21][22][23] Hence, when Gurney braked for the hairpin, the front wheels locked up and caused the BRM to spin out of control.[21][22][23][24] Gurney crashed into the sand dunes, with him being thrown free from the car that ended up lying inverted after it somersaulted through some small fences.[25][21][22][23] While Gurney escaped with only minor wounds, his BRM hit a group of young men situated in a prohibited area, including Piet Aalder.[22][25][23][21] While the other men recovered from their injuries, Aalder was not so lucky.[25][22] He ultimately passed away from his injuries aged 18.[22][23][25][24]

1961 Italian Grand Prix

The 1961 Italian Grand Prix was the seventh race of the 1961 Formula One Season. Occurring on 10th September at the Monza Circuit, the race would ultimately be won by Ferrari's Phil Hill, helping him claim his sole Drivers' Championship and become the first American to do so. However, the race is infamous for featuring the deadliest accident in Formula One history, which claimed the lives of Hill's teammate Wolfgang von Trips and 15 spectators.

It was the 11th running of the event as part of the Formula One calendar, with the race lasting 43 laps.[26] The 31st edition in Grand Prix history,[27] the Italian Grand Prix has been held at Monza for all bar one instance in 1980 since Formula One's inception in 1950,[28] and has garnered a reputation for being the "home" Grand Prix of Ferrari.[29]

The event would also marked the final instance of the Grand Prix utilising the full 6.2 mile version of the Monza Circuit and its banked section.[30][31][32][33] The British teams were unhappy racing at the 6.2 mile circuit, because they deemed the banked track too dangerous for racing, with the teams even boycotting the 1960 edition in protest.[30][31][33] This time, the British teams would compete as engines had been reduced to 1.5 litres, though they again voiced concerns regarding safety and expressed the desire to race on the road circuit.[30][31][33] The race organisers provided a partial compromise by reducing the distance from 50 to 43 laps.[33] Heading into the race, von Trips led Hill in the Drivers' Championship, with 33 points compared to 29.[34][33] The German therefore had the opportunity to secure the title at the event.[33] Lotus-Climax's Stirling Moss was in third with 21 points, and needed to win both the remaining races to stand any chance of winning the title.[32][33][34] Ferrari was also nearing its first Constructors' title prior to the event, with only Lotus having an outside chance of snatching the crown.[33][32][34] Additionally, the team would field a car for Ricardo Rodriguez, making his debut in the World Championship at only 19, despite Hill's concerns about his inexperience, stating "If he lives, I'll be surprised."[35][33][30][32][31]

Ferrari had gained an advantage for qualifying, as the team had conducted extensive testing back in August at the track.[30] All its cars posted times under 2:50, with von Trips achieving pole position with a time of 2:46.3.[30][32][31][26] A tenth behind in second was Rodriguez; by qualifying for the event at 19 years and 208 days, he became the youngest driver to start a World Championship event until the 2009 Hungarian Grand Prix, when Toro Rosso-Ferrari's Jaime Alguersuari qualified for the event at 19 years and 125 days.[35][32][30][33][26] His second place meant he also became the youngest to qualify for the front row, which lasted until the 2016 Belgian Grand Prix when Red Bull-Renault's Max Verstappen achieved the accolade at 18.[36] Ferrari's Richie Ginther and Hill ensured Ferrari had a 1-2-3-4 start, with BRM's Graham Hill starting fifth.[30][33][32][31][26] Moss qualified 11th out of 34 competitors, with the Rob Walker team having swapped their Lotus-Climax with a new V8 engine with a works Lotus four-cylinder originally driven by Innes Ireland.[33][30][26]

The Race

With the starting order decided, the 1961 Italian Grand Prix commenced on 10th September.[26] Ginther and Lotus-Climax's Jim Clark made the strongest starts, with both battling for the lead ahead of Hill, Rodriguez, and von Trips, who made a poor start.[30][32][31][33][26] However, by the completion of lap 1, Hill had moved into the lead, with Clark dropping down to fifth after being passed by Rodriguez and von Trips.[33][30][32] He then duelled with von Trips, only for the pair to collide on the approach to Parabolica, causing the latter's fatal accident.[37][33][30][31][32][26] Giancarlo Baghetti in a privateer Ferrari, Cooper-Climax's Jack Brabham, and Porsche's Dan Gurney barely avoided the accident ahead.[30][37] Moss meanwhile moved into sixth but was struggling with handling and gearbox characteristics of the works Lotus.[30] As the race progressed, only Brabham kept up with the four Ferraris, with Hill and Ginther occasionally swapping the lead, Hill primarily being ahead.[30][33][26] However, Brabham retired on lap 9 after a water leak convinced him that retiring would preserve the Climax engine.[30][33][32][26]

The Ferraris were now 20 seconds ahead of Moss, who was duelling with Gurney.[30][32][31] However, Rodriguez retired after 13 laps following a fuel pump issue, with Baghetti also being eliminated on the same lap due to an engine failure.[30][31][33][32][26] This convinced Hill and Ginther that while a 1-2 was likely, reducing the pace would ensure their cars would make it to the end.[30] By lap 22, Moss was still ahead of Gurney, with both under 20 seconds behind the two Americans.[30][31] Just two laps later, Ginther became the latest Ferrari retirement, following an engine failure.[30][31][33][32][26] Now that Moss had dealt with the Porsche, he was now motivated to try and close the gap to Hill to keep his title chances alive.[30] However, Hill capitalised on having a new Ferrari engine by increasing the gap to 28 seconds.[30] Suddenly, Moss began to slow, firstly being overtaken by Gurney, before retiring on lap 37 as the left front-wheel bearing overheated and jammed.[31][30][33][32][26]

Thus, Hill claimed victory and with it eight points in the Drivers' Championship.[30][31][32][33][26] This moved him one point ahead of von Trips in the standings; with von Trips now deceased and with Moss unable to catch the American, it assured Hill would be the 1961 Formula One World Champion.[38][30][33][31][32] He became the first American to win the title, the other being Lotus-Ford's Mario Andretti in 1978.[39][31] However, the death of von Trips meant that celebration was muted overall.[33][30][31][32] Gurney was over 30 seconds behind in second, while Cooper-Climax's Bruce McLaren took third.[30][32][26] There was a close battle for fourth, with Cooper-Climax's Jack Lewis and BRM's Tony Brooks finishing together almost in a dead heat; it was later declared Lewis beat Brooks for fourth.[30][32][26] Cooper-Climax's Roy Salvadori would finish a lap down in sixth.[32][30][26]

The Deadliest Accident in Formula One History

On the opening lap, Lotus-Climax's Gerry Ashmore was approaching the Parabolica, but misjudged his speed, causing him to hit the outside grass bank and collide into the forest near the South Banking.[30][33] Ashmore survived, but suffered serious head injuries.[31][33] Despite the serious accident, racing continued.[31][33] The following lap, Clark was racing von Trips in a battle for fourth.[33][30] Halfway through the lap, Clark attempted an overtake, when von Trips moved across to the left-hand side of the track where the Scot was present.[33][30][31][37] The cars collided at around 140mph, with Clark having spun on the track before resting on the grass verge.[40][31][33][37] While he was shaken, the Scot survived unhurt.[33][31][32][37][40] He stated to reporters afterwards "Von Trips and I had been passing and re-passing each other. As we approached the bend, he was almost level with me on my right. He suddenly pulled right across in front of me, and although I had two wheels on the verge, a front wheel touched his rear wheel. What happened then, I don't know."[33][31][37] Brabham, who witnessed the collision, denied allegations that either driver was carving each other up leading up to the accident.[33]

Meanwhile, von Trips' Ferrari somersaulted, before proceeding to mount a banking where spectators were present.[33][37][31][40] Protected only by a chain fence, several spectators were hit by the Ferrari, which then flipped backed onto its wheels and onto the track, with Baghetti, Brabham, and Gurney narrowly avoiding the wrecked vehicle.[33][37][31][40] During the crash, von Trips was thrown free from his car, resulting in him breaking his neck.[41][33][37][31] He was taken to hospital but was pronounced dead aged 33.[33][37][31] A German Count, von Trips was considered a natural motor racing talent, who although was prone to crashing in his early years of racing, would later be given the nickname "Taffy", presumably by 1958 World Champion Mike Hawthorn, with it being a Welsh slang word meaning a brave and fearless man.[41][37][33] He had the opportunity to gain the title at the event, but also expressed concerns about mortality to journalist Robert Daley a day before the race, telling him "It could happen tomorrow. That's the thing about this business. You never know."[33]

Aside from von Trips, eleven spectators were killed instantly in the accident.[37][40][33] A further four would perish in hospital in the following days, therefore bringing the final spectator death toll to fifteen, with many others injured.[37][40][33] To date, it is the deadliest accident to have occurred within Formula One's history.[37][33][40][31][32] As it was among a set of fatal accidents involving spectators that occurred between 1953 to 1961, it led to more demands for the banning of motorsport, while others were concerned that spectator safety was impossible without moving them too far away from the action.[33] Nevertheless, spectator safety has been enhanced significantly at Parabolica, with a double-height debris fence shielding the crowd.[33] Meanwhile, Ferrari, having secured both titles at the race, withdrew from the United States Grand Prix out of respect for the deceased.[33][31]

1962 Monaco Grand Prix

The 1962 Monaco Grand Prix was the second race of the 1962 Formula One Season. Occurring on 3rd June at the Circuit de Monaco, the race was ultimately won by Cooper-Climax's Bruce McLaren, capitalising when BRM's Graham Hill suffered an engine failure and withstanding late pressure from Ferrari's Phil Hill. However, the event is also infamous for an opening lap crash which claimed the life of marshal Ange Baldoni.

It was the ninth running of the event as part of Formula One following its debut on the calendar in 1950.[42] It was also the 20th in Grand Prix history.[43][42] Lasting 100 laps,[44] the Monaco Grand Prix remains an integral event of the Formula One calendar, including being prestigious enough to be classified as part of the Triple Crown of Motorsport, alongside the 24 Hours of Le Mans and the Indianapolis 500.[42][45]

Heading into the race, Monaco's race organisers again restricted entry to 16 cars.[46] Ten entries, consisting of the two top drivers from BRM, Cooper, Ferrari, Lotus, and Porsche, qualified automatically, with the remaining drivers battling for the six remaining places.[46] Porsche initially considering withdrawing from the event after finding its cars' performances at the 1962 Dutch Grand Prix disappointing but decided to compete after encouraging results in prior non-championship races.[46]

In qualifying, Graham Hill was generally setting fast times, despite teammate Richie Ginther seemingly struggling with the new BRM's throttle.[46] Motor Sport attributed this to Hill having larger feet than his American teammate, and could engage in better throttle control.[46] Meanwhile, Lotus were rather preoccupied with conducting a film, with numerous film and television crew members occupying its pits.[46] It is also known that French television broadcaster ORTF were eager to film Hill setting a lap time, with Hill complied with.[46] It appeared Lotus-Climax's Jim Clark was frustrated with the constant presence of filming, and so went out to set another time.[46] It proved to be good enough for pole position, Clark setting a time of 1:35.4.[47][48][46][44] Hill would start second, while McLaren qualified third.[46][44] Among the drivers that failed to make the 16-car grid included Jo Siffert, who was eliminated despite out-performing Ginther and other drivers in an outdated Lotus-Climax.[46][44]

The Race

With the starting order decided, the 1962 Monaco Grand Prix commenced on 3rd June with the track considerably damp.[46][48][44] Flagbearer Louis Chiron made an error by dropping the flag three seconds before the race was due to begin.[46] This caused confusion because jumping the start would result in a 60-second penalty.[46] Only Ferrari's Willy Mairesse started immediately, bumping into the slow-starting Clark and Hill on-route to taking the lead.[46][48] However, Mairesse over sped into the first corner, causing him to slide out of control.[46][48] Clark was forced to stop to avoid a collision, while McLaren and Hill passed through the gaps on each side of the Ferrari to take first and second respectively.[46][48][44] But the sharp braking up front caused havoc behind, with Ginter colliding with Maurice Trintignant's Lotus-Climax, the latter then spinning Lotus-Climax's Innes Ireland.[49][48][47][46] According to Ginther, he was convinced the BRM's throttle had jammed.[48][46]

All three drivers smashed into the wall and strawbales, with one of Ginther's rear wheels colliding with Dan Gurney's Porsche and breaking the rear of its gearbox.[46][47][48] Trevor Taylor's Lotus-Climax was also involved, damaging the car's nose.[46][47] Ginther, Gurney, and Trintignant were all out, while Ireland needed to pit to fix a petrol pipe.[46][47][48][44] During the accident, one of Ginther's wheels detached and hit marshal Ange Baldoni, causing him to suffer serious head injuries.[49][46][47] He was taken to hospital but died from his injuries on 12th June aged 52.[49][47][46] Baldoni was the Automobile Club’s commissaire-contrôleur, and the assistant manager of the Monaco Bus Company depot.[49] The drivers involved escaped uninjured.[47]

McLaren led from Graham and Phil Hill, but the BRM driver began to close the gap, eventually passing the Cooper on lap 7.[46][47][48][44] Hill expanded the gap to McLaren by three seconds after ten laps, as Phil Hill also began to challenge the Cooper driver.[46] However, he spun two laps later, enabling Lotus-Climax's Jack Brabham and Clark to move by.[46][48] Clark passed Brabham for third on lap 22, and now set his sights on McLaren, who was not bothering attempting to challenge Hill for the lead.[46][48] Clark then passed McLaren on lap 27 and set a string of fastest laps.[46][47] Hill countered by setting a lap record on lap 42, but Clark was now just a second behind the BRM.[46][48] Hill however gained breathing space after lapping Lola-Climax's John Surtees and Ferrari's Lorenzo Bandini, with Clark unable to immediately do the same due to Monaco's tight turns.[46] Gear-changing issues meant Clark dropped back to 15 seconds behind Hill by lap 52.[46] He eventually retired four laps later due to a clutch failure, promoting McLaren to second and third respectively, with Phil Hill not far behind.[46][47][48][44]

Graham Hill now led by around 45-48 seconds, but decided to slow down as his BRM's engine began to smoke.[46][48] This reduced the gap to about 36 seconds.[46] Meanwhile, Phil Hill passed Brabham for third on lap 76; a lap later, the Australian spun out, breaking his Lotus' front suspension.[46][48][44] Graham continued to lose time ahead of McLaren, the latter reducing the gap to 26 seconds by lap 90.[46] Meanwhile, Ferrari gave Phil the "flat-out" signal, leading to him maximising his car's performance.[46] On lap 93, Graham retired as the engine blew, enabling McLaren to take the lead ahead of Phil.[46][47][48][44] Phil was about 12 seconds behind Cooper by lap 95 and was continually reducing the gap.[46][47] By lap 99, he was only five seconds behind.[46][47] Ultimately, McLaren kept his nerve, taking victory by about 1.3 seconds, and claiming nine points in the Drivers' Championship.[46][47][48][44] Hill was second, while Bandini took third.[47][48][44] Surtees finished fourth, and Porsche's Jo Bonnier was seven laps down in fifth.[47][48][44]The race was one of attrition, with just those five drivers finishing the race. Because of this, Graham Hill took sixth, as everyone behind him had already retired.[48][44]

1966 Belgian Grand Prix

The 1966 Belgian Grand Prix was the second race of the 1966 Formula One World Championship. Occurring on 12th June at Spa-Francorchamps, the race was ultimately won by polesitter and Ferrari driver John Surtees, in a race that only saw five classified finishers. Eight competitors were eliminated on the opening lap; among them was BRM's Jackie Stewart, who was extremely fortune to survive a heavy crash, suffering serious injuries in the process. The accident led to the Scotsman's extensive race safety campaign, credited for numerous innovations which saved the lives of many drivers over the years.

It was the 26th running of the race, and the 15th under the Formula One calendar, with this race lasting 28 laps.[50][51][52] The event is typically held at Spa, although Nivelles and Zolder have also occasionally hosted the race.[51] After being left out of the Formula One calendar for the 2003 and 2006 Seasons, the race has been annually held at Spa-Francorchamps since 2007.[50]

Qualifying for the race commenced when Formula One had recently increased the maximum litre engines from 1.5 to 3.[53][54] Manufacturers were struggling to maximise the potential of the 3-litre engines, and thus some, including Ferrari, opted to bring smaller backup engines, such as a 2.4 litre V6 for Lorenzo Bandini.[53][54] BRM were still experimenting with its troublesome H16 engines, forcing Jackie Stewart and Graham Hill to contend with 2 litre V8 engines.[53][54] Despite this, Stewart set the fastest times early on in qualifying.[53] He was certainly enjoying proceedings more so than Jim Clark and Lotus, who encountered numerous issues with the H16, eventually giving up and reverting back to the V8s.[53] However, the replacements also experienced reliability gremlins.[53] Meanwhile, Ferrari finally fixed the issues plaguing its 3-litre V12 engine at the 1966 Monaco Grand Prix, allowing John Surtees to set the fastest time of 3:38.[53][54][52] Cooper-Maserati's Jochen Rindt also faced engine problems, but eventually set a time quickest for second on the grid.[54][52][53] This relegated Stewart to third.[54][52]

Some unusual sights were noted during qualifying.[55][53] A week prior to the race weekend, John Frankenheimer had travelled to Spa to capture footage for his upcoming MGM film Grand Prix.[55] With the assistance of several drivers, including Hill, Rindt, and Jack Brabham, scenes like a drivers' association meeting were recorded.[55] However, Frankenheimer wanted to record some footage of the race itself, to be used in the film.[55] One film scene required character Pete Aron to claim victory in a white Japanese car.[55] The problem was none of the Belgian Grand Prix entrants had arrived with white cars.[55] Frankenheimer successfully persuaded Bruce McLaren, who had recently founded the McLaren team, to repaint his McLaren-Serenissima.[55][53] However, McLaren suffered terminal damage to his Serenissima engine during qualifying, and was subsequently unable to compete as he lacked a replacement.[53][55][52] At short notice, Bob Bondurant repainted his BRM white and took McLaren's number.[53][55] Also lining at the back of the grid was Phill Hill in an MGM-owned McLaren-Ford.[53][55] He was not actually an entrant, but instead the camera driver who would capture footage of qualifying and the opening lap, as approved by the race organisers.[53][55]

The Race

With the starting order decided, the 1966 Belgian Grand Prix commenced on 12th June.[52] Surtees maintained his lead on the opening lap, while Clark suffered a terrible start as he spluttered off the grid.[53] Suddenly, heavy downpour commenced, wiping out a large proportion of the field.[56][54][53] Cooper-Maserati's Jo Bonnier, Lotus-BRM's Mike Spence, Cooper-Maserati's Jo Siffert, and Brabham-Repco's Denny Hulme all exited approaching Burnenville.[54][56][53][52] Heading into Masta Kink, Stewart, Graham Hill, Bondurant, and Rindt all lost control, with only Rindt managing to recover.[54][53][56][52] The extent of rainwater also destroyed Clark's engine.[53][54][52] By the time the first lap finished, just seven drivers were still on-track.[53][54][52] Meanwhile, Phil Hill survived the carnage, and with his job completed, peeled into the pits.[53][55]

Bandini led on lap 2, but was repassed by teammate Surtees on the following lap.[53][52] Rindt had recovered by lap 4, with Surtees even allowing him by to set the lead pace, as teammate Bandini ended up in a distant third place.[53][56][54][52] The monsoon weather meant there was zero point racing, with drivers instead being challenged simply to keep their cars on the road.[53] It would not be until lap 20 that conditions finally improved, allowing Surtees to catch Rindt.[53][54] A lap later, he moved into the lead, where he remained for the final laps.[53][54][56][52] He therefore took victory, with Rindt and Bandini taking second and third respectively.[53][54][56][52] Brabham finished fourth in a Brabham-Repco, ahead of Cooper-Maserati's Richie Ginther.[54][52] Guy Ligier finished sixth in a Cooper-Maserati.[53][52] However, as he had only completed 24 out of the 28 laps, he was not awarded a point as newly introduced regulations declared him not-classified for not completing at least 90% of the race distance.[53][54][52]

Jackie Stewart's Accident

On the opening lap, Stewart attempted to negotiate the Masta Kink, when the heavy rain resulted in him aquaplaning off the track at 170 mph.[56][53] He then suffered a series of serious collisions, first with a telegraph pole, before smashing into a cottage and finally a farm building's basement.[56][53][54] The Scot suffered extensive injuries to one of his shoulders and ribs, while also contending with internal bruising.[54][56] However, the ordeal was far from over. The inverted BRM was so heavily damaged that its fuel tank ruptured, causing its contents to leak into cockpit and burn Stewart's skin.[57][54] Stewart was unable to escape, and no marshals were nearby to rescue him.[56][57][54]

However, teammate Hill and Bondurant had also crashed out at Masta Kink, Bondurant having inverted his BRM and suffered minor scuffs in the process.[54][56][57][53] They immediately realised Stewart's predicament and swiftly set out to free him.[56][57][54][53] The bravery of the men could not be understated, as they faced the constant threat of a fireball triggered by an ignition.[56] One issue involved a jammed steering wheel.[56] With no tools available, Hill and Bondurant borrowed some from a nearby spectator, and finally got Stewart out of the wrecked BRM.[56][57][54] Stewart then instructed Hill to help remove the Scot's race suit, which was now covered in fuel and so proved a constant hazard.[56] Stewart was then placed on a hay truck as Hill searched for an ambulance.[56] As Hill was away, some nuns spotted Stewart.[56] Aghast by his nudity, they put his suit back on, inadvertently burning more of his skin.[56] It would not be removed again until Hill returned with the ambulance.[56] But after being taken to a medical centre, he was left on a stretcher in dirty conditions without any assistance.[56] He was taken to another hospital, only to arrive considerably late as a consequence of the ambulance driver ending up considerably off-course.[56]

After missing the French Grand Prix, Stewart made his return in the following race, the British Grand Prix.[58][54] However, his accident had a lasting psychological impact on him, as he experienced the dangerously lax safety standards Formula One was conforming to.[57][56] Aside from the cars themselves being potential death traps, so too were the circuits.[57] There were no runoff areas or barriers to cushion the impact of crashes, and hardly any emergency personnel available to perform effective and timely rescues.[57] Another incident during practice for the Belgian Grand Prix illustrates this.[56] As Clark was getting to grips with his Lotus during practice, he encountered a slow moving road vehicle somehow on the track, just as he exited a bend.[56] Clark had to take evasive action to avoid a collision with the car or end up crashing into the surrounding trees.[56] Stewart campaigned for numerous safety enhancements that are now taken for granted in Formula One.[57] He faced resistance from both circuit owners and fellow drivers, even against the inclusion of mandatory seatbelts and full-face visors, but overtime has been credited for his influence in saving countless lives.[57] Consequently, Stewart remarked that modern Formula One is now probably safer than American football.[57]

1967 Monaco Grand Prix

The 1967 Monaco Grand Prix was the second race of the 1967 Formula One World Championship. Occurring on 7th May, the race was ultimately won by Brabham-Repco's Denny Hulme, the future World Champion claiming his first win in the sport. However, the event is overshadowed by the fiery accident which claimed the life of Ferrari's Lorenzo Bandini.

The timing of the event was unusual, as it occurred five months following the opening South African Grand Prix.[59][60] It led some journalists, including from Motor Sport, to describe the Monaco Grand Prix as the first proper 1967 race.[60] Like with previous Monaco Grand Prix, only sixteen cars were allowed to qualify, with invitations given to the top veteran manufacturers, topping eleven entries in total.[61][60] Among those forced to fight for qualification included Jackie Stewart, who competed in an Owen Racing Organisation-owned BRM.[60] The sport was still transitioning from 1.5 to 3 litre engines, Lotus again being forced to rely on 2-litre engines for drivers Jim Clark and Graham Hill as the revolutionary Cosworth DFV was still not available.[60] Further bogging the team down was a shipping strike which prevented the team's transporter from reaching Monaco prior to the start of qualifying.[60]

Brabham Repco's Denny Hulme started strongly, though teammate and defending World Champion Jack Brabham suffered an engine failure early on Thursday's session, requiring an immediate substitution.[60] Another driver who impressed was Stewart, becoming the only driver that day to break the 1:30 mark.[60] However, with the Lotuses finally present, significantly faster times were posted on Friday.[60] Among the quickest was Honda's John Surtees, posting a time of 1:28.4.[60] Clark and Hill had swiftly made up for lost time with several laps below 1:30, while Stewart again performed strongly, this time in a H16 BRM as his other car suffered transmission issues.[60] Bandini proved over-aggressive in this session, crashing out at the Mirabeau hairpin.[60] Nevertheless, he redeemed himself on Saturday, achieving a time of 1:28.3, which put himself on provisional pole.[60] But just when it appeared the Ferrari driver would start first, Brabham finally capitalised on his replacement Repco power unit, achieving pole position on the last lap with a 1:27.6.[62][60][59] This dropped Bandini to second, with Surtees third, Hulme fourth, Clark fifth, and Stewart sixth.[62][60][59] Bob Anderson, Jean-Pierre Beltoise, and Richie Ginther all failed to make the final grid.[62][60][59]

The Race

With the starting order decided, the 1967 Monaco Grand Prix commenced on 7th May.[62] Bandini quickly took the lead from Brabham, whose day ended prematurely following a connecting rod failure, terminally damaging the Repco engine and causing oil to leak onto the track.[60][61][59][62] In the midst of dodging the stricken Brabham, Hulme and Stewart passed Bandini, Clark was stuck on the escape road, while Jo Siffert damaged his Cooper-Maserati's radiator.[60][59][61][62] Bandini was then passed by Eagle-Weslake's Dan Gurney, but quickly regained third when Gurney retired on lap five following a fuel pump failure.[60][62] As the drivers negotiated a still slippery track, Stewart passed Hulme for first on lap six, while Bandini defended third from Surtees.[60][59][61][62] The latter three all moved a spot when Stewart retired due to a broken differential on lap 15, as McLaren-BRM's Bruce McLaren began challenging both Bandini and Surtees.[60][59][62] After 27 laps, Hulme was considerably ahead, but Bandini gained some breathing space as Surtees' Honda engine slowly expired between laps 27 to 33.[60][59][61][62]

Clark made an extensive recovery, consistently setting new fastest laps and eventually challenging McLaren for third after 40 laps.[60][61][62] However, in a rare error for the Scot, Clark spun his Lotus entering the Tabac corner, terminally damaging his rear suspension after 43 laps.[60][61][59][62] Meanwhile, Bandini launched a bid for the lead, eventually cutting down Hulme's lead to eight seconds.[60][61][59] In contrast, McLaren lost ground as he experienced alternator issues, though was still able to race.[60][59] He eventually pitted for a new battery on lap 71, allowing Ferrari's Chris Amon to take third, with Hill not far behind.[60][59] After 70 laps, Hulme had truly regained control of the race, though it appeared Bandini was safe in second.[60][61] But 12 laps later, he suffered his fatal accident.[63][60][61][59][62]

With this, teammate Amon moved into second.[60][61][59] However, with nine laps remaining, Amon was forced to pit to replace a punctured right tyre, the damage suspected to have been sourced from Bandini's wreck.[60][61][59] Hill took second, but was a lap down from Hulme, who comfortably claimed his first World Championship victory.[60][61][59][62] Amon followed Hill in third, McLaren held on to take second, while Cooper-Maserati's Pedro Rodriguez and BRM's Mike Spence took the final points positions of fifth and sixth as they were the only other competitors still competing in the race.[59][60][62]

Death of Lorenzo Bandini

On lap 82, Bandini was maintaining second place, and was about to negotiate the Chicane du Port.[63][60][59][61] Laps prior, Motor Sport expressed concern that Bandini was over-exerting himself trying to catch Hulme, losing concentration and making minor errors approaching some corners.[60][63] Amon also believed his teammate was suffering severe fatigue.[64] These concerns proved valid, as Bandini entered the corner at too high a gear, fifth instead of the usual third or fourth.[63][60][64] He ended up clipping a wooden barrier at over 100 mph, which redirected him into straw bales guarding the harbour front, before finally smashing into a mooring bollard.[64][63][60][61] The wrecked car was then inverted, before igniting with Bandini unable to escape.[63][61][64][60][59]

Already, the situation was grim for Bandini.[65] However, a series of events contributed towards him needlessly suffering further horrific injuries.[63][65][61][64][60] The straw bales, which had already contributed towards the actual crash, soon fed the raging fire.[63][65][61][64] Several marshals arrived on-scene, but were unprepared as they lacked fireproof clothing and properly functioning fire extinguishers.[64][63][65][61] None had made sure to check on Bandini, assuming he had been thrown free of the car.[63] It took over five minutes to overturn the burning vehicle, as only ropes were available and the fire's intensity defeated several earlier rescue attempts.[63][64][61][65] By this point, the fire had seemingly died down.[64][63][65] A television helicopter reached the scene from above to capture the unfolding rescue efforts.[64][63][65] However, momentum from its blades ended up reinvigorating the fire, just as marshals were pulling Bandini out of the Ferrari.[64][63][65] In a panic trying to dodge the flames, the marshals accidentally dropped the Italian, who had been engulfed with flames once more.[64]

By the time Bandini was laid to rest near the roadside, he was covered in burns and foam.[63][61][64][60] Another critical mistake was made by the rescue effort, as they had assumed the driver had already perished and had overlooked him to prioritise extinguishing the fire.[63] Only sharp intervention from Giancarlo Baghetti, who found Bandini still breathing, ensured the latter was finally taken away from the track to the Princess Grace Polyclinic Hospital.[63][64][59] All these events occurred while the race itself still commenced, some drivers narrowly missing the accident scene.[61][64] This also prevented ambulances from reaching the accident scene, forcing Bandini to be taken to hospital by ship.[64][63] Despite reportedly improving somewhat while in hospital, it became clear to most that Bandini, who had suffered over 70% third degree burns and numerous internal damage, would still perish from his injuries.[64][63][60] Three days later, on 10th May, Bandini passed away, aged 31.[63][65][64][61][60][59] He had previously won the 1964 Austrian Grand Prix, and was described as a highly charismatic individual, as well as "one of the nicest people I've ever met" according to Amon.[64][63] As a mark of respect, Ferrari opted not to compete at the 1968 Monaco Grand Prix.[66]

Bandini's fatal accident led to heavy criticism of the track and the overall rescue efforts.[64][63][65] Aside from being woefully underprepared, it was also alleged by French television service ORTF that the Monaco firefighters had simply "walked away from the fire".[65] Further, the straw bales were cited as a key factor for the Ferrari being inverted, Amon stating that "nothing got a car upside down quicker than straw bales".[64][63][65] Thus, some changes were made to the circuit, with the straw bales replaced with guardrails, the chicane was moved further away from the tunnel, and, to avoid excessive fatigue, the race distance for future Monaco Grand Prix was reduced from 100 to 80 laps.[66][64][63] Despite Motor Sport criticising the changes as "feeble", the small safety improvements did yield tangible results.[66][64][63] At the 1968 Monaco Grand Prix, Johnny Servoz-Gavin experienced a similar incident as Bandini's.[64][63][66] But instead of causing the Matra-Ford to overturn, this did not occur upon hitting the guardrail, Servoz-Gavin being able to limp to the pits with terminal damage to his car.[64][63][66]

1968 French Grand Prix

The 1968 French Grand Prix was the sixth race of the 1968 Formula One World Championship. Occurring on 7th July, it was the final Grand Prix to be hosted at Rouen-Les-Essarts, and was won by Ferrari's Jacky Ickx, marking his first victory in the sport. But ultimately, the event is infamous for Jo Schlesser's fatal accident two laps into the event, contributing towards Honda's withdrawal from Formula One.

With Dan Gurney's Eagle team absent for the event, Honda opted to hedge its bets by entering a new car, the Honda RA302.[67][68][69][70][71] Unusually, the vehicle was driven not by lead driver John Surtees, but instead by Frenchman Jo Schlesser.[70][67][68][69] Surtees had previously tested the RA302 at Silverstone, which boasted a V8 engine and an air-cooled design which theoretically would spark a revolution if it proved successful.[70][71][67][68] However, the 1963 World Champion concluded that not only was the car less competitive than the more conventional RA301, he expressed strong concern over its safety, deeming it as a death trap.[71][70][67] He therefore entered the V12 RA301 for this event.[67][68] Honda, however, were not prepared to give up on the car, with founder Soichiro Honda believing the new car could boost his company's reputation in Europe, and thus increase sales.[69][71][70] With financial backing from Honda France, an additional entry was made for the French Grand Prix.[70][67][68] Initially, Honda France aimed to sign Johnny Servoz-Gavin, but he opted to remain with Cooper-BRM.[70] Thus, they offered the drive to Schlesser, who hastily cancelled his Seychelles holiday to capitalise on this opportunity.[70][69] Surtees was not actually informed by Honda of this decision, learning about it within the newspapers.[68][70] While this angered the Brit and intensified tensions within the team, the decision would enable a direct comparison of the two Honda vehicles.[68][70]

Rouen Les Essarts had never previously hosted a Grand Prix with 3-litre vehicles.[67] Naturally, the circuit's lap record set by a Formula 2 Brabham would be smashed, with Jochen Rindt breaking his own record with a Brabham-Repco.[67] Despite encountering engine reliability issues that had plagued much of his season, Rindt for once experienced good luck, starting in pole position with a time of 1:56.1.[72][67][69] While wearing a cast to nurse an injured wrist he sustained at a Formula 2 race, Jackie Stewart also proved competitive in a Matra-Ford, lining up second.[67][69][72] In third was Ferrari's Jacky Ickx.[67][69][72] In total, ten of the 18 drivers broke the 2 minute barrier, suggesting a highly engaging race was impending.[67][72] Among the ten was Surtees, who would start 7th.[72] In contrast, Schlesser was struggling in the RA302, finding it quick but very uncontrollable.[67] After spinning off-track, a damaged wheel ended his qualifying session prematurely. He would ultimately start 16th.[72]

Qualifying had commenced during a time period where teams were experimenting with unusual wing set-ups.[67] Among those included Lotus, whose aerofoils failed to properly enhance Graham Hill's performance, the then-championship leader only posting the ninth best time of qualifying.[67][69][72] But worse was to come; as Jackie Oliver was completing his third lap, the rear of his Lotus shot out, causing him to spin and slam into retaining walls at 125 mph.[69][67] The crash totalled the Lotus, but Oliver escaped uninjured.[69][67] As discussed in a 1990s interview with the BBC, Oliver was unsure whether the crash was caused by a mistake, or, as he suspected, a failure from the car's gigantic rear wing. He also expressed how lucky he was not to hit the iron gates of the chateau nearby, as this would certainly have caused his death. Despite this, he admitted he initially believed the accident was fatal, until he starting speaking with team owner Colin Chapman.

The Race

With the starting order decided, the 1968 French Grand Prix commenced on 7th July.[72] The start was messy, considering light rain had cultivated the track, with ineffective marshalling and flag usage also confusing matters.[67] Nevertheless, by equipping wet tyres instead of intermediates, Ickx took the lead from Stewart on lap 1, and began controlling the early stages as the rain became heavier.[67][69][68][72] Rindt made up for his poor start by passing Stewart a lap later.[67] That same lap, Schlesser suffered his fatal accident; racing still continued as drivers were forced to avoid the burning wreckage.[67][69][68][72] Rindt dropped down the order after picking up a puncture, while Surtees and BRM's Pedro Rodriguez moved ahead of Stewart.[67][69] By lap 7, the accident was officially dealt with, enabling Ickx to expand his lead.[67] Meanwhile, Rodriguez passed Surtees, in the process unintentionally flinging a stone that smashed Surtees' goggles.[67][69][68] Hill passed Stewart on lap 13, but retired two laps later from a broken driveshaft.[67][69][72]

The rain intensified on lap 19, causing Ickx to lose traction.[67][69] This allowed Rodriguez and Surtees to take first and second respectively, though the Belgian driver quickly recovered and regained the lead two laps later.[67][69][72] From this point, Ickx greatly increased his lead, eventually to 7.5 seconds over Rodriguez by lap 30.[67] Meanwhile, Surtees finally opted to replace his goggles on lap 34, the pit stop enabling Rodriguez to control second place.[67] Suddenly, on lap 46, his BRM suffered a gearbox jammed in second gear, essentially ending his time at the front as he and his team tried in vain to fix the issue.[67][69] This promoted Surtees to second, despite the Brit facing issues with a new wing, and Stewart to third.[67][68][72] Meanwhile, Ickx was well out in front, comfortably claiming his first victory and Ferrari's first since the 1966 Italian Grand Prix.[67][69][68][72] Surtees and Stewart took the podium spots, Cooper-BRM's Vic Elford finished strongly in fourth for his first World Championship race, while McLaren-Ford's Denny Hulme and BRM's Piers Courage took the final points positions of fifth and sixth respectively.[72][69][68]

Death of Jo Schlesser

On lap 2, Schlesser was racing downhill on-route to negotiating the Virage des Six Frères.[73][67][74][68][69] Suddenly, he lost control of the Honda, which was then redirected towards an embankment.[73][74][67][68][69] As it crashed, the RA302 rolled back down, became inverted, and suffered a ruptured fuel tank that subsequently burst into flames.[73][74][67][70][68][69] Some debris and burning petrol ended up hitting the crowd, causing five spectators to suffer minor injuries.[73][74][68][67] Two factors caused the fire to turn into an inferno: a full petrol tank, and the car's magnesium monocoque chassis, with magnesium most infamously contributing towards the 1955 24 Hours of Le Mans disaster.[71][73][67][70][68][69] The fire's intensity meant it reached 30 feet in height, and was described as "an horrific wall of fire" by Stewart.[73][70][68] It also provided serious safety hazards for the other drivers, as they had to negotiate the accident site in the midst of smoke and rain that harshly reduced visibility.[73][70][68]

Trapped within the engulfed vehicle, Schlesser stood no chance of escaping.[71][73][70][74] By the time the fire was extinguished 15 minutes later, the Frenchman had already passed away, aged 40.[73][70][74][67] Schlesser had previously competed in two other Formula One events, and had achieved some success in Formula 2.[73][70] Described as "a cheerful bloke, and a lovely guy" by friend Jabby Crombac, Schlesser had also begun business ventures with lifelong friend Guy Ligier, including setting up Ecurie InterSport in Formula 2.[70] Upon the passing of his friend, Ligier opted to fully retire as a racing driver.[70] Every car he established, including for Formula One, would be designated with the initials "JS" in tribute to Schlesser.[70]

An investigation indicated that not only was the RA302 unsafe, Schlesser's lack of experience testing the vehicle, especially when it was filled to the brim with petrol, contributed towards the crash.[73] Schlesser's fatal accident marked the beginning of the end for Honda's first Formula One venture.[73][71] Despite the RA302's lack of safety being demonstrated at the race, Honda opted to carry on improving the vehicle overtime.[71][73] However, when Surtees again refused to drive it, this time at the 1968 Italian Grand Prix, Honda called time on its involvement with Formula One.[71][73] While it did return as an engine manufacturer in 1983, it would not produce its own cars again until 2006.[73] The writing was also on the wall for Rouen-les-Essarts, as this was the second fatal accident at the circuit in two years, the first involving Jean-Claude Bernasconi on 9th July 1967.[73] Formula One never again travelled to Rouen-les-Essarts prior to the circuit's closure in 1994.[73][68]

1970 Dutch Grand Prix

The 1970 Dutch Grand Prix was the fifth race of the 1970 Formula One World Championship. Occurring on 21st June at the Zandvoort Circuit, the race would be won by polesitter and Lotus-Ford driver Jochen Rindt, in what marked the Lotus 72's inaugural World Championship victory. However, tragedy struck at the event when De Tomaso-Ford's Piers Courage was killed in a fiery crash on lap 23.

Lasting 80 laps, the event was held amid growing financial issues for Zandvoort, which did create concern the event would be cancelled.[75][76] Meanwhile, Lotus had re-introduced its Lotus 72 cars following an unsuccessful debut at the 1970 Spanish Grand Prix.[77][78][79][75] Now under a C-spec, the troublesome anti-dive and anti-squat geometry was removed, boosting car control significantly.[77][75][79] Ferrari bolstered its driver line-up by debuting future title contender Clay Regazzoni, partnering him with Jacky Ickx.[75][78] The event also marked François Cevert's debut race for Tyrrell, partnering alongside defending champion Jackie Stewart following Johnny Servoz-Gavin's retirement.[75][78]

In qualifying, Lotus' Jochen Rindt found the revised Lotus 72 much better to drive, and subsequently began posting the fastest times.[75][78][77] Even after spinning at the Tarzan Hairpin, Rindt quickly recovered and continued posting fast times.[75] Eventually, after setting fast times even with a full tank, the Austrian unveiled the 72's true potential with a pole position time of 1:18.50.[75][78][76][77] Stewart competed in a new March 701, but despite his best efforts, the Scot was unable to match the 72's performance, especially in terms of handling, eventually lining up second.[75][78][76] In third was Ickx, who proved the only other driver capable of challenging Rindt and Stewart, despite having to battle with fuel pump issues.[75][78][76]

Further down the grid, Piers Courage qualified ninth in a De Tomaso-Ford.[80][76][78] After contending with an uncompetitive car for the opening races, modifications to the rear suspension contributed towards improved qualifying potential.[75][80] Only a spin at the Tarzin Hairpin dampened his efforts.[75] In contrast, Lotus-Ford's Graham Hill nearly failed to qualify, as he was one of the slowest four racers.[75] However, a guaranteed start promise with race organisers enabled him to start 20th and last.[75][76] Dan Gurney, who last competed in Formula One in 1968, qualified a position ahead of Hill in a McLaren-Ford after replacing the injured Denny Hulme.[75][79][78][76] Qualifying also saw two major accidents involving Brabham-Ford's Jack Brabham and BRM's Pedro Rodriguez.[75][78] Both suffered tyre punctures that contributed towards them suffering 150 mph crashes through the sand dunes of Zandvoort.[75][79] Ultimately, Brabham and Rodriguez escaped unharmed, qualifying 12th and 7th respectively.[75][76]

The Race

With the starting order decided, the 1970 Dutch Grand Prix commenced on 21st June.[76] The start occurred earlier than anticipated, as the 1970 FIFA World Cup Final was due to commence later that day.[78] A bizarre start sequence caught out Rindt and Stewart, allowing Ickx to shoot into the lead.[75][79][76] BRM's Jackie Oliver also made a good start, overtaking Stewart for third, as the top four distanced themselves from the others by the next lap.[75][78] Amazingly, the race was virtually decided on lap 3, as Rindt achieved an overtake on the Tarzan Hairpin, subsequently building a gap between himself and Ickx.[75][79][78][76] Stewart moved back into third on the same lap and slowly closed in on Ickx.[75][78] None could challenge the Lotus 72 ahead, with Rindt setting consecutive fastest laps.[75] On lap 20, Rodriguez passed BRM teammate Oliver for fourth.[75] Three laps later, Courage suffered his fatal accident, though racing continued without any stoppages.[78][80][75][79][76]

On lap 24, Oliver retired following an engine failure, with Rodriguez heading out of the points picture following a damaged front nose.[75][76] BRM's woes, therefore, allowed Regazzoni to move up to fourth.[75] Meanwhile, the top three negotiated backmarkers just a third into the race; Rindt had no trouble, though Ickx and especially Stewart took several laps to wade through the traffic, temporarily halting the Scot's bid to overtake the Ferrari.[75] However, on lap 51, Ickx suffered a puncture to a right rear tyre, forcing the Belgian to pit.[75][78][79] He dropped behind Stewart and Regazzoni, though Ickx moved back into the podium spots after overtaking his new teammate without much opposition.[75][78][79][76] However, this put him a lap behind the leader.[75][79][76]

Elsewhere, Rindt dominated the remaining laps to claim an easy victory.[78][75][79][76] It marked the Lotus 72's first World Championship win; by the time it was retired after 1975, it had claimed two Drivers Championships and three Constructors Championships, making it one of the most successful Formula One cars of all-time.[77][78] Stewart was the only other driver to complete all 80 laps, with Ickx taking third.[75][79][78][76] Regazzoni finished a strong fourth on his debut, Matra's Jean-Pierre Beltoise took fifth, while John Surtees claimed a point in his own team's McLaren-Ford.[75][76] Rindt's historic win was naturally overshadowed by news of Courage's fatal accident.[78][75]

Death of Piers Courage

On lap 23, De Tomaso-Ford driver Piers Courage was approaching the Hondenvlak bend.[81][82] At the time, he was chasing the Ferrari of Clay Regazzoni for sixth, and built a gap between himself and the Lotus 72B driven by John Miles.[83][75] Suddenly, he lost control at around 160 mph following a front suspension failure and collided with catch fencing before slamming into a sand dune which caused the car to roll over several times.[81][82][83][79][78][80] The wrecked De Tomaso then burst into flames, fed by the magnesium chassis that contributed towards Jo Schlesser's fatal accident two years prior.[82][83][81][79][80] It also caused nearby trees to catch fire, and the intensity of the inferno meant marshals could not rescue the driver.[79] Courage is not believed to have perished from the fire; rather, a dislodged front wheel collided with his helmet, ripping it off completely and killing him instantly by inflicting fatal neck and/or head injuries.[81][83]

Aged 28, Courage proved a rising British driver within Formula One, having also achieved two-second places at the 1969 Monaco and United States Grand Prix.[80][81][82][83] He was also notably the first driver to race for Frank Williams, having conjured a strong friendship with the prominent team owner.[81][80][82] Additionally praised for his fun-loving personality, Courage was also courted for Formula One drives by both Ferrari and Lotus during his career.[81][80][82] A tragic fact regarding his fatal accident was that some, including his wife, Lady Sarah Curzon, initially believed he had actually survived the crash.[79][83] This stemmed from a marshal wrongly assuming that a fireman suffering from burns during the rescue efforts was actually Courage, which was subsequently relayed via a PA announcement.[79]

1974 United States Grand Prix

The 1974 United States Grand Prix was the final race of the 1974 Formula One World Championship. Occurring on 6th October at Watkins Glen, the event was ultimately won by polesitter Carlos Reutemann in a Brabham-Ford, after having led every lap. Meanwhile, McLaren-Ford's Emerson Fittipaldi finished fourth to claim his second World Championship, with the event also marking his teammate and 1967 World Champion Denny Hulme's final race start. However, the event is also infamous for a fatal accident involving Surtees-Ford's Helmuth Koinigg.

It was the 16th running of the event under the Formula One calendar, with the race also consistently held at Watkins Glen since 1961.[84][85][86] After Formula One stopped competing at Watkins Glen from 1981 onwards following the circuit's financial issues, the United States Grand Prix has been run on an on/off basis, though it has been routinely held at the Circuit of the Americas since 2012.[84][85][86] The 1974 edition was to last 59 laps.[87] However, the race came under scrutiny following the fatal accident of François Cevert during qualifying the previous year.[88][89] To avoid a similar accident, Grand Prix Drivers Association president Denny Hulme had earlier demanded that the guardrails be pushed back up to three yards in certain areas of the track.[89]

A three-way duel for the World Championship was to conclude at the event.[90][91][92] McLaren-Ford's Emerson Fittipaldi and Ferrari's Clay Regazzoni were level on 52 points.[91][90][92] Tyrrell-Ford's Jody Scheckter also was in contention with 45 points.[91][90][92] Fittipaldi held somewhat of an advantage heading into the event, for him and his car were 100%.[91][90] In contrast, Scheckter was in a new Tyrrell following his crash at the previous 1974 Canadian Grand Prix, whereas Regazzoni was nursing a bruised leg inflicted via a testing accident in his Ferrari.[90][91] Outside of the World Championship, the race itself also proved coveted as the winner would earn $50,000 of a $300,000 prize pot.[90][89] Additionally, Denny Hulme, the 1967 World Champion, would retire from Formula One at the event's conclusion.[90] Finally, two American drivers competed at the event; Parnelli-Ford's Mario Andretti; and Penske-Ford's Mark Donohue.[93][90][89]

During qualifying, Brabham-Ford's Carlos Reutemann consistently set the fastest times during both sessions, with Motor Sport praising the new BT44.[90] He ultimately achieved pole position with a time of 1:38.97.[90][92][91][93][87] Rather surprisingly, James Hunt took second in a Hesketh-Ford, boosted by Firestone tyres.[90][91][92][93][87] In third was Andretti, despite hitting a guard rail and losing the entirety of the Saturday session.[90][91][92][93][87] As for the title hunters, Fittipaldi qualified eighth, whose McLaren required replacement front brakes early in the sessions.[90][91][87] Directly behind him was Regazzoni, who like teammate Niki Lauda was experiencing problematic handling, made worse by Regazzoni's engine damaging its crankcase.[90][91][93][87] Scheckter out qualified both, lining up sixth, though had to switch to a replacement Tyrrell as his original suffered an engine failure.[90][91][87] Meanwhile, Hulme started 17th, while Surtees-Ford driver Helmuth Koinigg lined up 23rd, ahead of Lola-Ford's Graham Hill.[94][91][87]

Only 25 entries were allowed to race, meaning five drivers failed to qualify.[91][90][90] Among them was Tim Schenken, who struggled in an uncompetitive Lotus 76.[95][90] Under normal circumstances, Schenken's race weekend would have been prematurely over.[90][95] However, Team Lotus attempted to exploit a rule which allowed non-qualifiers to participate in the warm-up, by having the New Zealander cunningly line up "27th" on the grid, behind fellow non-qualifier and Surtees-Ford driver Jose Dolhem.[90][95][87] The plan was that if one or more of the 25 qualifiers could not compete, Dolhem, then Schenken would be allowed to compete.[90] Whereas Dolhem proved lucky, Schenken was not, but the latter apparently got confused regarding the official's signals and raced anyway.[90] This ruse worked for six laps, before race organisers caught wind of Schenken illegally being on track and thus ultimately disqualified him.[95][90][91][87] The only other known instance of an illegal entrant during a Formula One race was Hans Heyer during the 1977 German Grand Prix.[95]

The Race

With the starting order decided, the 1974 United States Grand Prix commenced on 6th October in front of a record 105,000 fans.[87][89] Even before the race began, trouble emerged for Hunt and Andretti, as the former contended with fuel pressure issues, while the latter suffered electrical problems.[90][89][91][92] But whereas the Hesketh was able to start, Andretti remained stranded on the grid.[90][89] This allowed Dolhem to take his place, with crew members pushing the stricken Parnelli back to the pits.[90][87] Elsewhere, Reutemann maintained his lead from the start ahead of Hunt and Brabham-Ford's Carlos Pace.[90][91][92][93][87] Fittipaldi moved directly behind Scheckter, while Regazzoni fell considerably behind the pair.[90][91] Hulme's final race ended with an engine failure on lap 4, and while Andretti was able to compete two laps into the event, he was disqualified for receiving out-of-pits assistance.[92][90][89][87] On lap 10, Koinigg suffered his fatal accident; racing continued, though news of the crash prompted Surtees to retire Dolhem 15 laps later.[90][91][92][87]

Whereas Lauda was doing his best to keep Scheckter and Fittipaldi behind in, it was ultimately in vain for Regazzoni, as he encountered tyre and handling issues.[90][93][91][92] An early front tyre pitstop did little to combat the issue, and by the time the front suspension was adjusted in a later pitstop, he was already a lap behind the leaders on lap 28.[90][92] Fittipaldi received additional good fortune as Scheckter, for the South African encountered a fuel leak on lap 45, forcing a retirement compounded with engine overheating issues.[90][89][91][93][92][87] Thus, with Fittipaldi's title challengers out of the equation, observers focused on the battle up front.[90][91] Reutemann had faced no real threat from Hunt, with the latter also defending second from Pace.[90][92] Fuel system issues dented Hunt's performance, allowing the Brazilian through on lap 55, having also set the fastest lap of 1:40.6.[90][89][91][92][87] Reutemann was able to keep a sizable gap away from his teammate, thus taking a dominant victory and the $50,000.[90][89][91][93][92][87] Pace helped Brabham achieve a 1-2, while Hunt kept his car going to beat Fittipaldi for third by five seconds.[90][89][91][93][92][87] In fifth was John Watson in a privately-owned Brabham-Ford, with Tyrrell-Ford's Patrick Depailler taking sixth.[91][93][92][87]

Fittipaldi's fourth was naturally enough for him to claim his second World Championship, the first being in 1972.[90][89][91][93] Following the race, the Brazilian stated that "It would have been very difficult" to win the race, thus becoming relieved doing so was not mandatory for his title hopes.[89] It also marked the revolutionary Ford-Cosworth DFV engine's 100th World Championship victory.[93] Aside from the race itself, the 1974 United States Grand Prix also played host to annual lunacy within the Bog, an open spectator field.[96][97] During the weekend, parties led by the Bogladytes contributed towards senseless destruction. This included 12 burnt cars, countless debris thrown within the area, and a Brazilian Greyhound coach being stolen, driven into cars, and vandalised, before finally being set on fire.[96][97] It is unclear who stole the coach, though the culprit was described as "a shitless longhair".[97] Following a clear-up act by race organisers, which included additional security and the Bog's destruction, shenanigans were never quite the same at Watkins Glen after 1974.[96][97]

Death of Helmuth Koinigg

On lap 10, Surtees-Ford driver Helmuth Koinigg was negotiating Turn 7 of Watkins Glen, when he suddenly lost control of his vehicle at the hairpin while attempting to brake.[98][99][94][93] One of the Surtees' rear tyres had deflated, with the car failing to slow as it smashed through catch mesh and into a nearby Armco barrier.[98][94][93][99] Other drivers, including Regazzoni and Andretti, had suffered similar crashes at the hairpin during practice, though survived uninjured.[94][98] BRM's Jean-Pierre Beltoise suffered a minor foot injury during practice but later made a full recovery.[98][94] However, the Armco Koinigg approached contained a fatal flaw; during its installation, the bottom rails were not properly tightened, resulting in it buckling as the Surtees ploughed through it at a certain angle.[94][98][99] In contrast, the top portion of it remained secure, causing the car to smash in between the Armco.[94][98][93][99] The Surtees itself made its way between the gap, but this was not high enough to fit Koinigg.[98][94][99] As a result, the steel guardrail decapitated the Austrian.[94][98][93][90][99]

Aged 25, Koinigg was competing in only his second Grand Prix start, having impressed John Surtees with a valiant qualifying performance at the 1974 Austrian Grand Prix.[94][98] Having achieved some prior success in sports car racing, as well as a good debut at the previous 1974 Canadian Grand Prix, Koinigg was considered a bright prospect, with courting the attention of numerous Formula One teams.[94][98] Upon receiving news of Koinigg's fatal accident, Surtees opted to retire Dolhem as mark of respect for Koinigg.[94][98][90][87] Additionally, fellow Austrian Niki Lauda retired his Ferrari on lap 39 upon being notified of the crash.[93][87] The race organisers' response to the accident was heavily criticised, particularly the decisions to merely place a tarpaulin over the Surtees and Koinigg's body, and continue racing from there.[94][90]

Following the death of Koinigg, and Cevert the year before, Watkins Glen underwent additional safety changes prior to the 1975 United States Grand Prix, including adding a chicane prior to the bend when Cevert suffered his fatal accident.[100] As Formula One's safety campaign intensified over the years, some non-fatal crashes not too dissimilar to Koinigg's have illustrated how lives were saved in situations where survival was deemed improbable.[101] Particularly, Romain Grosjean's 2020 Bahrain Grand Prix accident was compared to Koinigg's, with the halo among other innovations credited for saving the Frenchman's life.[101]

1975 Spanish Grand Prix

The 1975 Spanish Grand Prix was the fourth race of the 1975 Formula One World Championship. Occurring on 27th April at the Montjuïc circuit, the event would be won by McLaren-Ford's Jochen Mass, marking his only victory in the sport. March-Ford's Lella Lombardi finished sixth, becoming to date the only woman to score World Championship points. However, the race was infamously abandoned after 29 laps after an accident involving Hill-Ford's Rolf Stommelen, which claimed the lives of four spectators, and severely injured Stommelen and several other spectators.

It was the tenth running of the event as part of the Formula One calendar.[102][103] During this time period, the event's hosting alternated between two tracks; the Montjuïc circuit and the Circuito del Jarama.[104][102][103] Following the events of the 1975 Spanish Grand Prix, the Montjuïc circuit never hosted a Formula One race again, with the Jarama circuit exclusively taking over until the race was dropped in 1982.[104][103][102] It was brought back in 1986, and since 1991 has been annually hosted at the Circuit de Barcelona-Catalunya.[102][103]

The Strike and Qualifying

The 1975 race was set to run for 75 laps.[105] However, concern emerged as the teams entered the circuit, where it was discovered that the Armco barriers and catch fencing had been badly erected.[106][107][108][109][110][104] Preparations had occurred hastily, resulting in barriers and posts with loose or missing bolts, making it easy for them to fail.[104][106][107][108][109][110] For instance, McLaren-Ford's Emerson Fittipaldi conducted a photoshoot, where he leant on one of the barriers.[109] Said barrier collapsed under his weight.[109] Clearly, in the wake of François Cevert and Helmuth Koinigg's deaths at the 1973 and 1974 United States Grand Prix respectively, the track's current safety measures were hopelessly inadequate.[107][108][106][109][104] Thus, Fittipaldi, as president of the Grand Prix Drivers Association (GDPA) conducted a strike prior to Friday practice to demand safety be enhanced to GDPA standards.[106][107][108][109][110][104] The only drivers out on track were non-GDPA members Jacky Ickx and Vittorio Brambilla, who drove for Lotus-Ford and March-Ford respectively.[106][109][110]

Some drivers, like Ferrari's Clay Regazzoni, as well as teams like BRM and Lotus, were sympathetic to the cause but were still eager to race.[106] Still, the strike occurred throughout Friday, until the race organisers brought in more crew members to enhance safety that evening.[106][104][107] However, the efforts were again not up to GDPA standards; the teams agreed, prompting many of their personnel to also work on securing the barriers.[109][106][110][108][104][107] One story recounts that team owner Ken Tyrrell entered the circuit and tightened all the barriers with a spanner.[108][106] As Saturday qualifying approached, consensus emerged between the F1 constructors and stewards that the track was about 90% safe, but was still unlikely to meet GDPA's standards.[106][104][107] A practice session beforehand saw Ickx, as well as Bob Evans and Roelof Wunderink, compete.[106] Evans, driving for BRM, believed that only a section of guardrails on the track was unsafe and that he was now satisfied with the rest.[106]

But as Saturday qualifying loomed, it appeared the GDPA was going to boycott the event, which would occur at 4pm.[106][109][110][108] Only six GDPA drivers were actually prepared to race.[109] Ultimately, boycotting the race was not as simple as it appeared.[106][109][108][104][107] Formula One and its teams had a vested interest in competing, for the Formula One Constructors Association (FOCA) had signed a deal with the Royal Club of Cataluna, guaranteeing that a race would emerge.[106][108][104][107] Concern rose over the legal consequences of a boycott, especially as the race organisers would have valid reasoning to file a lawsuit.[106][108][104][110][107] Additionally, it was anticipated that the Guarda Civilia would impound the vehicles.[106][108][104] Thus, the teams were forced to demand the GDPA cancel its boycott, threatening contract terminations and financial penalties to those who did not comply.[106][104][108][107][109][110] The race weekend therefore commenced, though it was revealed drivers could still withdraw providing they completed three laps of action.[104][107][109] Thus, a furious Fittipaldi completed three qualifying laps at slow speed before pulling out of the event.[106][104][110][108][107][105]

In contrast, most drivers were now fixated on the World Championship.[106][104][107] The Ferraris proved competitive, with Niki Lauda taking pole position with a time of 1:23.4.[106][109][110][108][105] Teammate Regazzoni qualified second, albeit under controversial means.[106][109][110][105] It was revealed that timekeepers had mistaken one of Lauda's fast laps as being done by Regazzoni.[106] Despite other teams protesting this error, Regazzoni's second place was still ultimately upheld.[106][105] In third was Hesketh-Ford's James Hunt, with Parnelli-Ford's Mario Andretti qualifying fourth.[109][110][105] Further down the field, Hill-Ford's Rolf Stommelen qualified ninth, while McLaren-Ford's Jochen Mass would start 11th.[105] Meanwhile, Lella Lombardi lined up 24th out of 26 competitors in a March-Ford.[105] Making her debut at the previous 1975 South African Grand Prix, Lombardi was only the second woman to compete in the Formula One World Championship, after Maria Teresa de Filippis in 1958.[111] Also during qualifying, Patrick Depailler crashed his Tyrrell-Ford into the barriers.[106] These barriers withstood the impact, suggesting that the circuit's safety was adequate after all.[106]

The Race

With the starting order decided, the 1975 Spanish Grand Prix commenced on 27th April.[105] Lauda led the field away, though as he approached the left-hand hairpin, he was clipped from behind by Andretti, the American having been also hit by Brambilla.[107][106][109][110] This caused the Ferraris to collide, with the Surtees-Ford of John Watson also hitting Andretti.[106][109][110] Lauda's front right suspension was broken, while Regazzoni limped back to the pits, eventually resuming four laps down after heavy repair works.[106][109][110][107][105] Hunt had taken the lead amidst the chaos, ahead of Andretti, Watson, and a fast-charging Stommelen.[106][109][110][107][105] Meanwhile, Fittipaldi-Ford's Wilson Fittipaldi and Williams-Ford's Arturo Merzario deemed the track unsafe and withdrew after completing a lap.[106][110][105] On lap 4, Tyrrell-Ford's Jody Scheckter suffered an engine failure, causing oil to leak onto the track, and resulted in the Hesketh-Ford of Alan Jones and the Penske-Ford of Mark Donohue spinning out.[106][110][105] The oil also caught out Hunt three laps later, crashing out in the process and allowing Andretti to take over.[106][110][109][107][105]

Andretti was contending with a Parnelli which suffered damage to its front wing and left rear wheel.[106][109][110] Still, he continued, defending against Watson.[106] However, Watson's race became unglued when he flat-spotted a tyre, forcing a premature pitstop to resolve the vibrations it caused.[106][107][110] Stommelen was now up to second, which suddenly became first after Andretti's damaged left-rear suspension finally collapsed on lap 17.[106][109][110][107][105] Stommelen's main challengers were Carlos Pace in a Brabham-Ford and the Lotus-Ford of Ronnie Peterson, with Peterson frequently challenging the Brazilian.[106][110][107] All three were set to lap Stommelen's teammate Francois Migault.[106][110] Stommelen and Pace successfully made it through, but Peterson collided with the Hill approaching a corner, wrecking his Lotus' front suspension.[106][110][105] This promoted Mass to third, as Pace continued challenging Stommelen for the lead.[106]

On lap 26, Stommelen was still in front.[107] However, his Hill then suffered a violent rear-wing failure, causing him to lose control at the stadium jump and collide with Pace.[106][110][109][107][105] This resulted in his Hill becoming airborne, triggering the fatal accident.[106][109][110][107] Mass assumed the lead as Pace also crashed out, Mass now narrowly ahead of Ickx.[106][105] Stommelen's crash had also heavily damaged phone and television cables, preventing timely news of the incident from reaching the pits.[104] Thus, racing continued, with Ickx overtaking Mass on lap 28, only for the German to regain the lead a lap later.[106][105] Upon hearing of the accident's severity, the race was suddenly called to enable emergency services to enter the track.[106][109][110][105] As less than half the race was completed, half-points were awarded for the first time, with Mass claiming his only World Championship victory.[106][110][109][107][105] Ickx finished second, with Brabham-Ford's Carols Reutemann taking third, Shadow-Ford's Jean-Pierre Jarier claiming fourth, and Brambilla finishing fifth.[110][109][105] Lombardi was one of only eight classified finishers, beating out Watson and Williams-Ford's Tony Brise to finish sixth.[110][111][109][105] As a result, she became the first, and to date, only, woman to score World Championship points.[111][110][109][107][104]

Tragedy on Lap 26

At the beginning of lap 26, Hill-Ford's Rolf Stommelen was leading the race ahead of Brabham-Ford's Carlos Pace.[112][107][108] While approaching the "stadium jump" of the track, at around 150-160 mph, the Hill's rear wing broke away.[112][107][104][109][108][106] The sudden loss of downforce resulted in the German losing control, where it proceeded to clip the barriers and rebound into the path of Pace, taking out the Brabham as well.[112][107][104][106] The Hill then went airborne, ploughing into the barriers on the opposite side.[112][104][107][106][108] These barriers were notably tightened by the Hill team; had it not been, the resulting accident would have been significantly worse.[107] But while the barriers withstood the impact, it launched the vehicle over the top of the guardrail, destroying a lamp post, before landing inverted into the grandstand.[112][104][107][108][109]

The Hill was completely destroyed, while Stommelen sustained significant injuries to both his legs, a wrist, and two ribs.[112][104][107][108] He nevertheless survived the crash, as did an uninjured Pace.[108] However, the wreck hit several spectators, with four being crushed by the Hill.[112][104][107][108] In total, four people were killed in the accident; these included photojournalists Mario de Roia and Antonio Font Bayarri, aged 31 and 28 respectively; spectator Andrés Ruiz Villanova, aged 38; and fireman Joaquín Morera Benaches, aged 52.[113][112][104][108] All four victims were of Spanish nationality.[112] In addition, numerous other spectators were injured, with five requiring hospital treatment for serious wounds.[112] The crash had also severely damaged phone and television cables, preventing communication back to the pits as race organisers scrambled for four laps on the best course of action.[104][107][108] Eventually, upon the organisers being informed of the crash's severity, the race was prematurely ended four laps later, which enabled emergency services to reach the victims.[109][107][104][108]

Stommelen recovered from his injuries, later returning for the 1975 Austrian Grand Prix.[114][115] His Formula One career ended after 1978, where he later competed in other categories including nearly winning the 1979 24 Hours of Le Mans alongside Dick Barbour and actor Paul Newman.[114][115] However, he later passed away in an accident at the 1983 Los Angeles Times Grand Prix, held as part of the IMSA GT Championship.[114][115] As a consequence of the fatal accident, and the numerous other safety concerns raised throughout the race weekend, Montjuïc has never hosted a Formula One race since.[104][107][103] The fact the race weekend did commence marked a powershift in favour of constructors over their drivers, with GDPA greatly losing its influence that it once held years prior.[107] Formula One's business side was cited as a major factor for this shift.[106][107]

1977 South African Grand Prix

The 1977 South African Grand Prix was the 3rd race of the 1977 Formula One World Championship. Occurring on 5th March at the Kyalami Circuit, the event was ultimately won by Ferrari's Niki Lauda, his first following his near-fatal accident at the 1976 German Grand Prix. However, the event is overshadowed by the fatal collision between Shadow-Ford's Tom Pryce and marshal Frederik Jansen van Vuuren, in what is considered among the most horrific accidents in motor racing history.

It was the 14th running of the event under the Formula One calendar, and the 11th to be held at the Kyalami Circuit, with the 1977 edition lasting for 78 laps.[116][117][118][119] The South African Grand Prix's history is plagued with controversy as the races were held during the country's Apartheid regime, culminating in Formula One refusing to visit the nation between 1986 to 1991.[118][117][116] Post-Apartheid, the race was held in 1992 and 1993, before financial issues forced its permanent dropping from the calendar.[116] A proposed revisit for 2024 was scrapped by the FIA following South Africa's decision to not condemn Russia's invasion of Ukraine.[120]

Qualifying began under unseasonably damp weather, scaring off most teams who instead instructed their drivers to perform under essentially testing conditions.[121] Still, it enabled Shadow-Ford's Tom Pryce to impress, who initially set the fastest time of 1:33 in a new Shadow DN8.[122][121] However, it became obvious the starting order would be based around lap times set the following day, which occurred on a dry track.[121] Defending champion and McLaren-Ford driver James Hunt generally controlled proceedings, with his McLaren M23 successfully balancing speed with control, especially in comparison to the six-wheeled Tyrrell-Fords.[121] However, Hunt was almost dropped to second as it appeared Brabham-Alfa Romero's Carlos Pace had set the fastest time in a new Brabham BT45B fitted with revised rear suspension.[121]

Ultimately, a protest from McLaren was upheld when it was revealed the timekeepers crucially forgot Hunt's time of 1:15.96, which was enough for his third consecutive pole position.[123][121][122][119] Ferrari's Niki Lauda took third despite having his tyres unintentionally over-pumped, Tyrrell-Ford's Patrick Depailler started fourth, while Wolf-Ford and South African driver Jody Scheckter claimed fifth.[121][123][119] Pryce started 15, five places ahead of teammate Renzo Zorzi.[119] Additionally, Larry Perkins, more famous for his V8 Supercars success, qualified 22nd and last in a BRM.[119]

The Race

With the starting order decided, the 1977 South African Grand Prix commenced on 5th March.[119] Hunt pulled away at the start, while Pace's campaign began disastrously slowly after experiencing wheelspin, dropping to fifth in the process.[121][122][123] Pryce also lost several places, as Hunt slightly extended the gap between himself and long-term rival Lauda.[121] However, the Ferrari began to claw back at Hunt, eventually overtaking the McLaren on lap 7 with relative ease.[121][122][123][119] Reports indicated Ferrari's better aerodynamics greatly contributed to the overtake, especially as the McLaren's wing angles were not suited to the track.[122][121] Lauda increased his lead as the laps passed by, especially as he had an easier time lapping vehicles ahead than Hunt, whose difficulties enabled Scheckter to slip by on lap 18 and allow Depailler to close the gap.[121][123] On lap 22, Zorzi retired because of a split fuel pipe.[122][121][123][119] This led to a sequence of events that caused Frederik Jansen van Vuuren and Tom Pryce's fatal collision, with Pryce's Shadow also taking out Ligier-Matra's Jacques Laffite.[121][122][123][119]

The crash's aftermath impacted Lauda, as rollbar debris from the Shadow ended up damaging the Ferrari's water system.[121][123] Scheckter also suspected psychological concerns were also at play, as the Austrian slowed to keep the engine cool enough and ensure optimal oil pressure.[121][122] This did allow the Wolf to close in on the Ferrari, but alas, Lauda eventually managed to pull away once more, managing his wounded car sufficiently and again easily passing lapped cars to keep Scheckter, Hunt, and Depailler from properly challenging.[121][122] By lap 66, Depailler harnessed the slipstream of Hunt and the lapped March-Ford driven by Brett Lunger to overtake the former, being restricted to the hard shoulder yet still managing to edge out in front.[121][123]

Elsewhere Lauda claimed victory despite being forced to switch off his engine with several hundred yards still to run, as the Ferrari had exhausted most of its water and oil supply, with the Austrian was keen to avoid a full-on engine failure.[121][123][119] Scheckter finished second ahead of Depailler, with Hunt fourth, teammate Jochen Mass fifth, and Brabham-Alfa Romeo's John Watson sixth.[119][123] It marked Lauda's first win following his near-fatal crash at the 1976 German Grand Prix.[122] Ultimately, celebrations were muted as news regarding the fatal collision spread.[121][122]

Deaths of Frederik Jansen van Vuuren and Tom Pryce

On lap 22, Renzo Zorzi's Shadow-Ford suffered a split fuel pipe, which triggered a fiery engine failure.[124][125][122] He pulled up on the left field of the Kink straight, where he struggled to free himself from the cockpit as his oxygen pipe proved tough to disconnect.[126][124][122] Sensing the danger apparent, two marshals were instructed to promptly extinguish the flames.[127][128][124][126] The marshals, one known as Bill, and the other Frederick Jansen van Vuuren, would need to cross the track in order to reach the stricken Shadow.[128][125][127] Jansen van Vuuren was carrying a fire extinguisher weighing 40 pounds.[128][124] He and the other marshal quickly ran towards the vehicle, without having received prior permission to do so.[128][126] Unbeknownst to them, the March-Ford of Hans-Joachim Stuck and Shadow-Ford of Tom Pryce were rapidly approaching, duelling in a battle for 12th.[122][125][124][127][126] They travelled over the hill's brow, reaching 180 mph.[122][124]

Stuck had a clear view ahead, and narrowly avoided colliding with Bill by moving to the right, apparently missing both marshals by just millimetres.[128][127][125][124] However, Pryce was directly behind the March, and so did not notice the marshals until it was too late.[127][124][122] Whereas Bill successfully crossed the track, Jansen van Vuuren was not so lucky, being hit by the Shadow at over 170 mph.[128][127][122][125] He was instantly killed from the resulting collision, causing his lifeless body to be propelled into the air, and land not far from Zorzi and Bill.[128][126][127][122][125] Jansen van Vuuren's body was unrecognisable following the accident, and was nearly split in half.[125][128][126] Thus, confirmation of his death was only reached when a marshal summoning revealed he was the only one absent.[125][126] Aged 19, Jansen van Vuuren worked as a booking clerk at Jan Smuts Airport, and was nicknamed "Frikkie" by his friends.[127][126] He was overjoyed to learn he was selected as a fire marshal for the event.[127]

Following the fatal collision, Jansen van Vuuren's fire extinguisher was thrown free.[124][128][121][126] It proceeded to slam into Pryce's helmet at around 160 mph, the impact causing the helmet to wrench upwards, with the helmet strap partially decapitating Pryce.[126][124][128][121][122][125] The extinguisher then smashed into the Shadow's rollbar, before travelling over a nearby grandstand and then colliding with and subsequently jamming a parked car's door.[128][124][121] With Pryce dead behind the wheel, the Shadow continued travelling down the straight after suffering front wing and rollbar damage.[124][121][122] It veered to the left, initially impacting metal barriers and an emergency vehicle entrance, before proceeding to collide with the Ligier-Matra driven by Jacques Laffite.[121][124][128][122][125] Both wrecked cars came to rest in the barriers, with Laffite escaping with minor bruises.[121][124][122][125] The Frenchman was initially confused and angry with Pryce, especially concerning the Shadow's unusual movement as the cars reached the Crowthorne Corner.[124][125][121][126] He travelled over to confront Pryce, only to realise witness the gruesome aftermath.[126][124]

Aged 27, Pryce was considered among Britain's future Formula One stars, having achieved two podiums and a pole position during his short career.[124][122][126] It was suggested that Pryce, along with other young British racers like Roger Williamson, were potential World Champions who all passed away before their time in fatal accidents during the 1970s.[124] An academic report even claimed Pryce was the 28th best all-time Formula One driver.[129] A Welshman, the Tom Pryce Trophy was later awarded annually to fellow Welsh personalities for their contributions to motorsport and transport.[130] Another tragic fact regarding the fatal collision was that Pryce's wife, Fenella, had witnessed the accident in the grandstands.[122]

Some observers, including some within the Shadow team, criticised Zorzi, questioning why he decided to pull up on the straight rather than head directly towards the pits.[131][128] However, an investigation revealed the collision was the result of inexperience surrounding the marshals, with Jansen van Vurren in particular lacking adequate training for the race.[124] This was cited during the van Vurren family's successful wrongful death lawsuit against the race organisers.[124] Several new safety measures were incorporated into Formula One regulations, including forbidding marshals from running onto the track when cars are fast approaching.[124][127] Hence, such an accident has never occurred in Formula One since. Available footage and imagery of the accident and its aftermath has contributed towards the collision being deemed one of the most horrific in motor racing history.[128][126]

1978 Italian Grand Prix (FOUND)

The 1978 Italian Grand Prix was the 14th race of the 1978 Formula One World Championship. Occurring on 10th September at Monza, the event saw Niki Lauda and John Watson achieve a 1-2 finish for Brabham-Alfa Romeo. Lotus-Ford's Mario Andretti also secured the World Championship at the race. This arose under tragic circumstances, as Andretti's teammate Ronnie Peterson passed away a day after being caught up in an opening lap crash. While the full race feed was publicly available via various sources, the ABC broadcast remained mostly missing until 2023.

Courtesy of Team Lotus achieving a 1-2 at the 1978 Dutch Grand Prix, only its drivers could win the championship.[132][133][134] Mario Andretti led Ronnie Peterson 63 points to 51.[135][132] The American was all but guaranteed the title, for the Swede's number two driver contact obligated him to conform to team orders in Andretti's favour.[136][134][132] Peterson remained loyal to this, especially as he believed a move to McLaren-Ford next season as its top driver would pay dividends.[137][136][134] Before qualifying itself commenced, pre-qualifying was needed to limit the number of competitors to 28.[138][137][132] Lotus-Ford's Héctor Rebaque, and the McLaren-Ford's driven by Nelson Piquet and Brett Lunger made it to qualifying, while four drivers, including Keke Rosberg in a Wolf-Ford, suffered an early exit from the race weekend.[137][132][138]

In qualifying itself, Lotus received mixed fortunes.[137][132][133] Andretti was performing strongly, as was typical for his season.[137][133] After testing the spare car, Andretti achieved pole position in his main Lotus, with a time of 1:37.52.[137][132][133][138] In contrast, Peterson's qualifying session proved difficult, for his Lotus 79's engine immediately failed.[137][133] As his crew worked on repairing the 79, Peterson was forced to contend with a Lotus 78, as the spare car's cockpit proved too small for him to fit in.[137] While the 78 naturally proved uncompetitive to the 79, Peterson still delivered a time fast enough for fifth on the grid.[137][132][133][138] He was unable to build upon this once his 79 was repaired.[137] Meanwhile, Ferrari's Giles Villeneuve impressed in his first Monza race, posting the second-fastest time.[137][132][138] Jean-Pierre Jabouille demonstrated the growing potential of the V6 turbocharged Renault by lining up third, ahead of Brabham-Alfa Romeo's Niki Lauda, who contended with engine issues.[137][132][138]

An additional four cars were eliminated to limit the final grid to 24.[137][138] Piquet and Lunger made it through, but Rebaque was forced to switch to an older Lotus 78, which ultimately cost him a place in the event.[137][138] The 24 cars then commenced a warm-up session, which saw Peterson crash his 79 at the second chicane following a rears brakes failure.[139][137][132] Thus, the Swede was forced to use the 78 for the race.[137][132][133][139] The race was originally set to last for 52 laps.[137]

The Race

With the starting order decided, the 1978 Italian Grand Prix commenced on 10th September.[138] The start occurred before the grid had fully settled, resulting in the midfield bunching up as Villeneuve started strongly and passed Andretti for the leader, with Lauda challenging the latter for second.[137][132][139] Peterson suffered a poor start because of a fuel injection problem, resulting in him dropping to 11th.[137][136] Further back, Arrows-Ford's Riccardo Patrese, who qualified 12th, had a grand start and was battling McLaren-Ford's James Hunt as the cars travelled towards the Variante Goodyear.[137][132][139][133] Suddenly a collision occurred, causing a chain reaction that also took out Peterson, Ferrari's Carlos Reutemann, the Tyrrell-Ford's of Patrick Depailler and Didier Pironi, the Shadow-Ford's of Clay Regazzoni and Hans-Joachim Stuck, Lunger, Surtees-Ford's Vittorio Brambilla, and Derek Daly's Ensign-Ford.[137][132][139][133] The resulting high-speed accident completely destroyed Peterson's Lotus, with it also erupting into flames.[137][132][139][133] This forced a red flag, with Peterson and Brambilla being taken to hospital with serious injuries, while Stuck was suffering from a minor concussion and was ordered not to take the restart.[137][132][139][133][138] Whereas most others took their spare cars, Pironi and Lunger had none available and so were also eliminated from the event.[132][138]

Following the enormous clear-up process, the race was delayed further when Wolf-Ford's Jody Scheckter spun off and collided with the Armco barriers.[137][132][139] While he escaped unharmed, other drivers inspected the barriers and demanded they be repaired before the race restarted.[137][132][139] It would not be until 6:15 pm that the race began, with the event now reduced to 42 laps.[137][132][139][138] When it did, Villeneuve and Andretti jumped the start, with the Ferrari narrowly ahead of the Lotus by the first lap.[137][138] Jabouille moved ahead of Lauda for third and began to pull away from the Brabham just as Villeneuve built a gap over Andretti.[137] However, the Frenchman retired on lap six following an engine failure, as Lauda's teammate John Watson began climbing the order from 11th to fifth.[137][132][138] Villeneuve resisted another Lotus overtake attempt on lap eight, while Reutemann began chasing Lauda for third.[137]

Andretti slowed somewhat to avoid terminally damaging his rear brakes, giving Villeneuve a five-second lead.[137] However, during the race's later stage, the Canadian began to struggle as his Michelin tyres deteriorated, giving Andretti an advantage with his longer-lasting Goodyear tyres.[137][132] Despite the Canadian's best efforts, he was unable to keep Andretti behind indefinitely, the Lotus making its move on lap 35.[137][132][139] Villeneuve's brakes also suffered, though he was able to hang on to second.[132] Reutemann was also competing with Michelin tyres, enabling Watson to move by into fourth.[137][132] Elsewhere, Andretti crossed the line first with Villeneuve second.[137][132][139] However, it was revealed during the race's mid-stages that both drivers were given a minute's penalty for jumping the start.[137][132][139] Thus, it was actually Lauda who claimed victory, ahead of Watson and Reutemann.[137][132][139][138] Ligier-Matra's Jacques Laffite finished fourth, McLaren-Ford's Patrick Tambay took fifth, while Andretti was dropped back to sixth.[137][132][139][138] Villeneuve consequently finished outside the points in seventh.[137][132][138] The confusion over the race results mattered little as a sombre tone emerged in the wake of Peterson and Brambilla's serious accident.[137][139] Moods darkened further as grim updates surrounding Peterson's declining condition emerged.[137][132][139]

Death of Ronnie Peterson

On the opening lap, the field was bunched up together following a botch start sequence, which saw the race begin before the grid had fully lined up.[140][137][139][132][136] In the midst of this, Arrows-Ford's Riccardo Patrese made a strong start, and now racing the Lotus-Ford of Ronnie Peterson and the McLaren-Ford driven by James Hunt.[139][137][132][136] The field was quickly approaching the first chicane, with the track narrowing from 40 to 12 metres.[140][136] Patrese, as well as Tyrrell-Ford's Patrick Depailler and Ensign's Derek Daly, were forced to go beyond the white line on the track's right side, with the Brazilian requiring space from Hunt.[136][132][137] However, Hunt did not give way, resulting in carnage occurring.[136][132][137][139] He and Patrese collided, with the former also clipping Peterson.[133][136][137][132] Peterson then ended up slamming into the left guardrail with such force that the Lotus erupted into flames.[140][133][136][137][139][132] Worse still, it ended up back on the track, where it was hit by Surtees-Ford's Vittorio Brambilla.[137] The Lotus was subsequently split in half.[137][139][132] Other cars ploughed into the accident scene, with Brambilla and Shadow-Ford's Hans-Joachim Stuck being hit on the head by detached wheels.[132][137][136]

Peterson remained conscious following the crash, but had suffered horrendous leg injuries and burns, with a reported 27 separate foot and leg fractures.[133][137][136][139][132][140] He was also trapped within the burning Lotus, forcing Hunt, Clay Regazzoni and others to brave the flames in order to free him.[136][139][137][132][133] Back then, no medical car was immediately on-scene, with emergency services only reaching the scene 15 minutes after it happened.[139][133] Worse still, the Italian police blocked anyone from offering assistance beforehand, including Formula One's Surgical Advisor, Professor Sid Watkins.[133] Even then, Peterson was required to wait further for assistance, as medics were more concerned with Brambilla's wellbeing, for he was knocked out from the accident and suffered head trauma.[139][137][136][140] Once Brambilla was transferred to the hospital, efforts turned towards the stricken Peterson, who was now lying in the middle of the track.[139][132][133] The Swede was taken to Monza's medical centre, while the fire marshals put out the burning wreckage.[137] Brambilla, following hospital treatment, recovered from his injuries after nearly a year out, and competed in Formula One until 1980.[141]

At the medical centre, medics conducted an x-ray exam on Peterson's legs and worked on the driver until nearly midnight.[133][136][139][132] Among the decisions made included amputating Peterson's toes on his right foot, to pinning his damaged bones to ensure adequate circulation for both legs.[136][133] Finally, with Peterson reportedly in stable condition, it was decided to transfer him to Niguarda Hospital's intensive care unit.[140][133][136][139] However, Peterson's condition quickly deteriorated; as he suffered thigh fractures, he was prone to a rare condition called fat embolism, which often forms in blood vessels when bones are fractured.[142][133][136] In most cases, fat emoblism syndrome does not cause serious harm.[142] But ultimately, this fat embolism was large enough to end up blocking Peterson's lungs, preventing oxygen from reaching his brain.[133] By the time he reached the hospital, at around 4 pm, Peterson was already declared clinically dead, aged 34.[133][136][139][132]

Having achieved ten wins, and finished runners-up in 1971 and 1978, Peterson is considered among the greatest Formula One drivers never to win the World Championship.[134][136] His return to Lotus after three seasons away was also cited as marking the Swede's comeback after a few mediocre campaigns, with him also confident that a move to McLaren for 1979 would see him challenge for the title.[134][136] As a consequence of Peterson's death, teammate Mario Andretti became the 1978 World Champion, though celebrations in the Lotus camp were completely muted, with Andretti stating "What should have been the happiest day of my life has turned out to be the saddest".[139][132]

Ultimately, Patrese would become the scapegoat regarding Peterson's death.[143][144][136][139] Hunt, alongside top drivers like Andretti, Emerson Fittipaldi, Niki Lauda, and Jody Scheckter, all blamed the young Italian for causing the accident.[143][139][144][136] What made initially defending Patrese difficult was the lack of available photographic evidence of the crash, as well as Patrese's reputation as a fast but overly aggressive driver.[144][143] Plus, all five accusers were also well-respected, and, aside from Scheckter, were all World Champions at the time (Scheckter would become World Champion in 1979).[144][143] Thus, their word proved more powerful than Patrese's, and they subsequently decided to "ban" the Italian from competing at the following 1978 United States Grand Prix.[139][144][143][136] While they technically had no power to do so, their threats to pull out if Patrese competed forced the Arrows team, who were battling controversy of their own relating to copying Shadow's car, to withdraw the Italian from the event.[144][143][139] Patrese's appeal to an American judge proved too late to change matters, though he returned at the 1978 Canadian Grand Prix, finishing fourth at the event.[144][136][143]

Patrese and the race starter, Gianni Restilli, were also put on trial concerning Peterson's death, but they were acquitted in 1981.[145][139][144] More information surrounding the judgement arose two years later, which actually placed blame on Hunt after it showed Patrese was clear of both him and Peterson when the collision happened, and that Hunt's decision to veer centre and not slow down triggered the accident.[146][144][143] Alas, whereas Fittipaldi, Lauda, and Andretti regretted their actions that led to Patrese's banning, Hunt never apologised to the Italian.[143][139] Patrese continued racing in Formula One, before retiring after 1993 as one of the most respected drivers of the era.[144]

Regardless of who was responsible for the accident, a consensus emerged that new safety measures were required to avoid future fatalities.[133] Under Watkin's direction, a medical car was mandated to always follow the grid on the first lap.[133] Professional firefighter crews were also permanently situated at future Grand Prix to immediately tackle sudden blazes.[133] Both resolutions saved lives, mostly notably during Gerhard Berger's fiery accident at the 1989 San Marino Grand Prix, which very well could have been fatal were it not for prompt arrival by the emergency services.[133] Monza was also greatly redesigned; initially, barriers were moved further away, and the pit lane was completely redeveloped.[147][133] Following the death of Ayrton Senna at the 1994 San Marino Grand Prix, the track itself underwent extensive modification, the biggest being the inclusion of new chicanes that have slowed the cars down significantly, subsequently boosting circuit safety.[147]


According to Issue 1,808 of Radio Times, footage of the 1958 French Grand Prix was included in a report by Sportsview on 9th July, with Moss himself providing commentary.[148][149][150] It is unclear how long the segment lasted, as the 30-minute program also included reports on the AAA Championships and the White City Jubilee.[148][149] The broadcast has yet to publicly resurface, although other race footage exists thanks to a British documentary. No footage of Musso's fatal accident and its aftermath is known to be available. Similarly, Issue 1,823 of Radio Times stated that a special 15-minute Sportsview episode reported on the 1958 Moroccan Grand Prix on 22nd October, with Moss being the reporter.[151][152][150] Only newsreel footage of the race is publicly available.

The 1960 Dutch Grand Prix received full live television coverage from Belgian broadcaster BRT. It was also partially aired live by the BBC, ORTF, and NTS.[150] According to Issue 1,908 of Radio Times, 15 minutes were televised by the BBC as part of its Grandstand programming.[153][150] The television broadcasts have yet to resurface, although newsreel footage from British Pathé can be viewed online.[154] It is unclear whether the television broadcasts captured footage of Gurney's accident, but the newsreel does show the remains of the BRM.[154]

Footage and photos of the 1961 Italian Grand Prix and the fatal accident are widely available to view in documentaries and newsreels.[40] However, television coverage of the race remains missing; this includes four live airings of the race as part of the Eurovision Network, lasting around an hour and ten minutes.[150] Additionally, Issue 1,974 of Radio Times stated that the BBC provided highlights on the same days as part of Sportsview, with the 35-minute broadcast also containing a preview of a 1961 European Cup match between Gornik and Tottenham Hotspur, and a report of a rugby league match between Lancashire and New Zealand.[155][150] No television broadcast has fully resurfaced, but a fragment of the Eurovision Network coverage was included in a documentary.

The 1962 Monaco Grand Prix reportedly received partial live coverage from several television broadcasters.[150] Among these include a combined 3 hours and 30 minutes of coverage from Belgium broadcaster RTB, 2 hours and 15 minutes from the Netherlands' NTS, a combined 1 hour and 45 minutes from ORTF.[150] According to Issue 2,012 of Radio Times, 35 minutes were provided by the BBC, detailing the start and the end of the event.[156][150] American outlet ABC provided 90 minutes of highlights on 10th June 1962.[150] None of these broadcasts have fully resurfaced, though partial footage from the BBC and ORTF did resurface in documentaries, suggesting the full tapes still exist within each broadcaster's archives. Other footage, including a high-quality 70mm film from the German documentary Mediterranean Holiday, and newsreel footage from British Pathé, has also resurfaced.[157]

Outside of the colour footage that can be viewed in Grand Prix, the 1966 Belgian Grand Prix also received extensive live coverage from a few broadcasters.[150] Most notably, Belgian television company Radio-Télévision Belge (RTB) aired the entire race live.[150] Meanwhile, Issue 2,222 of Radio Times confirms the BBC provided partial live coverage, harnessing RTB's coverage.[158][150] This included 20 minutes dedicated to the race start, and a further 20 minutes for the closing stages.[158][150] Ultimately, little television coverage of the race has publicly re-emerged. Nevertheless, some BBC coverage was included in a documentary focusing on Stewart, suggesting the company still holds its uncut coverage of the event.

Meanwhile, the 1967 Monaco Grand Prix was partially televised live across the world, some broadcasts lasting for a few hours.[150] Among these include an ORTF broadcast, where footage of the rescue efforts on Bandini has since publicly resurfaced.[150] According to Issue 2,269 of Radio Times, the BBC's broadcast was split into three timeslots.[159][150] The first was a 25-minute exclusive segment reporting on the race start, harnessing footage presented by TMC and ORTF.[159][150] It then shared a 35-minute segment with coverage of the Lancashire-Worcestershire cricket match.[159][150] Finally, a 20-minute segment was shared with the aforementioned cricket match, documenting the closing stages of the event.[159][150] None of the BBC footage is currently publicly available, and indeed, most live coverage of the race is missing. However, a brief ABC highlights package was televised on 21st May 1967.[160][150] It provided colour highlights of the event, as well as of the rescue efforts.[160] This triggered major controversy, for it showed close-up footage of a severely burned Bandini being dragged away.[160] This led some publications, like The New York Times, to question whether broadcasting such close-up coverage exceeded the boundaries of decency.[160] This broadcast can be found online, including via Facebook and YouTube.

Aftermath footage of Schlesser's crash at the 1968 French Grand Prix was made available in various newsreels. From a television standpoint, few 1968 broadcasts were made, with many European channels under the Eurovision Network banner scared away from airing races featuring sponsored cars.[150] The concept of sponsored vehicles was notably introduced by Lotus that same year.[161] Nevertheless, Austrian television channel ORF provided just under eight minutes of highlights from the event, which has also publicly resurfaced. However, research by dweller23 on 1950s-1980s Formula One television broadcasts indicates that French television company ORTF may have also provided some additional coverage of the event.[150] It has been verified that it partially aired all French Grand Prix live since 1960, and had also provided highlights and partial live coverage of the 1968 British and Italian Grand Prix respectively.[150] Ultimately, however, the existence of this ORTF broadcast is unconfirmed.[150]

Aftermath footage of Courage's fatal accident at the 1970 Dutch Grand Prix was caught via newsreel and television cameras and can be viewed online. Live broadcasts of the race itself occurred via several outlets, including Austria's ORF providing full live coverage.[150] Of this, footage of the inaugural laps has publicly resurfaced, though the full broadcast has not.

Graphic photos of Koinigg's fatal crash at the 1974 United States Grand Prix can be found online.[99] In terms of television coverage, it is known that Brazil's Globo and Switzerland's TSR fully televised the race live, most likely reflecting both nations' hype for the title fight between Fittipaldi and Regazzoni.[150] Additionally, ABC broadcast two hours of highlights on 12th October 1974.[150] According to Steve Erlichman on Racerhead, the broadcast included footage of Andretti, as a camera crew followed him prior to the race; and Chris Economaki interviewing Reutemann post-race.[93] No television coverage is known to have publicly resurfaced, though footage from other sources, including the 1974 season review, remains publicly viewable.

Some footage of the 1975 Spanish Grand Prix's fatal accident, as well as aftermath photos, can be viewed online.[112] Additionally, some television companies provided full live coverage of the race, including Spain's RTVE.[150] Of this, a few clips of RTVE's broadcast can be viewed on YouTube, including a race report, Stommelen's crash, and Mass reaching the chequered flag. Outside of television coverage, some race footage is publicly available via documentaries and the 1975 season review. However, the full race broadcast currently remains missing.

Footage of Pryce and Jansen van Vurren's fatal accident at the 1977 South African Grand Prix can be publicly viewed from two angles. Regarding television coverage, it is known that Austria's ORF, Italy's RAI, Switzerland's TSR, and Brazil's Globo all fully covered the race live.[150] Additionally, Issue 2,782 of Radio Times states that BBC One provided highlights of the race on 9th March as part of Sportsnight, sharing a 21:25-22:15 timeslot with other sports coverage.[162][150] A few highlights have publicly resurfaced, including from newsreels, documentaries, and the 1977 season review. Alas, whereas some full 1977 race broadcasts have resurfaced, the complete coverage of the 1977 South African Grand Prix is not believed to have publicly resurfaced.[163]

Unlike the other races, the full coverage of the 1978 Italian Grand Prix has publicly resurfaced and can be found via various sources.[164] Similarly, the full raw feed of the 1973 Dutch Grand Prix, which featured Roger Williamson's fatal accident, is also publicly available.[165] However, it was also confirmed that ABC provided highlights of the 1978 Italian Grand Prix on 16th September 1978.[150] Only limited ABC coverage resurfaced until 31st January 2023, when YouTuber asopher2 acquired a black-and-white recording from a collector. After editing out coverage of the 1978 Michigan 150, as well as commercials, the 20+ minute broadcast was uploaded to YouTube. Some 1961 Italian Grand Prix highlights were also shown in the airing. Photos of the crash and its aftermath are also available online.[140]



Colour footage of the 1958 French Grand Prix from a British documentary.

Colour footage of the 1958 Moroccan Grand Prix from a British documentary.

Footage of the 1958 Moroccan Grand Prix from a British documentary.

British Pathé newsreel of the 1958 Moroccan Grand Prix.

Silent British Pathé newsreel footage of the 1960 Dutch Grand Prix.

Footage of the 1961 Italian Grand Prix shown on the Eurovision Network.

Colour footage of the 1961 Italian Grand Prix from a British documentary.

British Pathé newsreel of the 1961 Italian Grand Prix.

Aidan Millward discussing the 1961 Italian Grand Prix and the disaster.

BBC coverage of the 1962 Monaco Grand Prix.

ORTF coverage of the 1962 Monaco Grand Prix.

Mediterranean Holiday film footage of the 1962 Monaco Grand Prix.

Silent British Pathé newsreel of the 1962 Monaco Grand Prix.

Other footage of 1962 Monaco Grand Prix.

Fragment of the BBC's 1966 Belgian Grand Prix broadcast included in a documentary.

HD colour footage of the 1966 Belgian Grand Prix from the film Grand Prix.

Silent British Pathé newsreel of the 1966 Belgian Grand Prix.

Aidan Millward documenting the 1966 Belgian Grand Prix.

ORTF coverage of Bandini's crash at the 1967 Monaco Grand Prix.

British Pathé newsreel of the 1967 Monaco Grand Prix.

British Movietone News newsreel of the 1967 Monaco Grand Prix.

Silent colour footage of the 1967 Monaco Grand Prix.

ORF highlights of the 1968 French Grand Prix.

Jackie Oliver discussing his accident during practice for the 1968 French Grand Prix.

The opening minutes of the 1970 Dutch Grand Prix.

Television coverage of the 1970 Dutch Grand Prix also featuring the aftermath of Courage's crash.

Colour footage of the 1970 Dutch Grand Prix from a documentary.

Associated Press footage of the 1974 United States Grand Prix.

Home movie footage of the 1974 United States Grand Prix.

RTVE coverage of the 1975 Spanish Grand Prix, including the crash and Mass taking the chequered flag.

Summary of the 1975 Spanish Grand Prix.

Aidan Millward discussing the 1975 Spanish Grand Prix.

Remastered highlights of the 1977 South African Grand Prix.

Summary of the 1977 South African Grand Prix.

ABC coverage of the 1978 Italian Grand Prix.

On-board footage of Ligier-Matra's Jacques Laffite at the 1978 Italian Grand Prix.

Aidan Millward discussing the 1978 Italian Grand Prix, Peterson's fatal accident, and Patrese's ban at the following 1978 United States Grand Prix.

See Also

Formula One Media

Other Motorsport Media


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Ultimate Car Page listing every French Grand Prix. Retrieved 17th Aug '22
  2. 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 2.15 2.16 Racing-Reference detailing qualifying and race results of the 1958 French Grand Prix. Retrieved 17th Aug '22
  3. 3.0 3.1 F1 Destinations detailing the history of the French Grand Prix. Retrieved 17th Aug '22
  4. 4.00 4.01 4.02 4.03 4.04 4.05 4.06 4.07 4.08 4.09 4.10 4.11 4.12 4.13 4.14 4.15 4.16 4.17 4.18 4.19 4.20 4.21 4.22 4.23 4.24 4.25 4.26 4.27 4.28 4.29 4.30 4.31 Motor Sport providing a detailed 1958 French Grand Prix report. Retrieved 17th Aug '22
  5. 5.00 5.01 5.02 5.03 5.04 5.05 5.06 5.07 5.08 5.09 5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13 5.14 5.15 5.16 5.17 5.18 5.19 5.20 5.21 5.22 Grand Prix summarising the 1958 French Grand Prix and Musso's crash. Retrieved 17th Aug '22
  6. 6.00 6.01 6.02 6.03 6.04 6.05 6.06 6.07 6.08 6.09 6.10 6.11 6.12 6.13 6.14 6.15 6.16 6.17 6.18 6.19 ESPN summarising the 1958 French Grand Prix and Fangio's post-race comments. Retrieved 17th Aug '22
  7. GP Racing Stats noting this was Hawthorn's final Formula One victory. Retrieved 17th Aug '22
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 8.9 Motorsport Memorial page for Luigi Musso. Retrieved 17th Aug '22
  9. 9.00 9.01 9.02 9.03 9.04 9.05 9.06 9.07 9.08 9.09 9.10 9.11 9.12 9.13 9.14 Racing News 365 detailing the only Moroccan Grand Prix to count towards the Formula One World Championship. Retrieved 10th Sep '22
  10. 10.00 10.01 10.02 10.03 10.04 10.05 10.06 10.07 10.08 10.09 10.10 10.11 10.12 10.13 10.14 10.15 10.16 10.17 10.18 ESPN summarising the 1958 Moroccan Grand Prix. Retrieved 10th Sep '22
  11. Motor Sport detailing the Ain Diab Circuit. Retrieved 10th Sep '22
  12. 12.00 12.01 12.02 12.03 12.04 12.05 12.06 12.07 12.08 12.09 12.10 12.11 12.12 12.13 12.14 12.15 12.16 12.17 12.18 12.19 12.20 12.21 12.22 12.23 12.24 12.25 12.26 BBC Sport summarising the 1958 Moroccan Grand Prix and how it marked an "end of an era". Retrieved 10th Sep '22
  13. 13.00 13.01 13.02 13.03 13.04 13.05 13.06 13.07 13.08 13.09 13.10 13.11 13.12 13.13 13.14 13.15 13.16 13.17 13.18 13.19 13.20 13.21 13.22 13.23 13.24 13.25 13.26 13.27 Motor Sport providing a detailed 1958 Moroccan Grand Prix report. Retrieved 10th Sep '22
  14. 14.00 14.01 14.02 14.03 14.04 14.05 14.06 14.07 14.08 14.09 14.10 14.11 Racing-Reference detailing qualifying and race results of the 1958 Moroccan Grand Prix. Retrieved 10th Sep '22
  15. Motorsport Memorial page for Mike Hawthorn. Retrieved 10th Sep '22
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 16.4 16.5 Motorsport Memorial page for Stuart Lewis-Evans. Retrieved 10th Sep '22
  17. 17.0 17.1 17.2 17.3 17.4 The Crash Photos Database detailing Lewis-Evans' crash and providing photos of it. Retrieved 10th Sep '22
  18. 18.0 18.1 18.2 Circuits of the Past detailing the history of Zandvoort and the Dutch Grand Prix. Retrieved 16th Sep '22
  19. 19.00 19.01 19.02 19.03 19.04 19.05 19.06 19.07 19.08 19.09 19.10 19.11 19.12 19.13 Racing-Reference detailing the qualifying and race results of the 1960 Dutch Grand Prix. Retrieved 16th Sep '22
  20. Autoweek reporting on the return of the Dutch Grand Prix to the Formula One calendar. Retrieved 16th Sep '22
  21. 21.00 21.01 21.02 21.03 21.04 21.05 21.06 21.07 21.08 21.09 21.10 21.11 21.12 21.13 21.14 21.15 21.16 21.17 21.18 21.19 21.20 21.21 21.22 21.23 21.24 21.25 21.26 21.27 21.28 21.29 21.30 21.31 21.32 Motor Sport providing a detailed 1960 Dutch Grand Prix report. Retrieved 16th Sep '22
  22. 22.00 22.01 22.02 22.03 22.04 22.05 22.06 22.07 22.08 22.09 22.10 22.11 22.12 22.13 22.14 22.15 22.16 22.17 22.18 22.19 22.20 22.21 22.22 22.23 ESPN summarising the 1960 Dutch Grand Prix and the accident that claimed Aalder's life. Retrieved 16th Sep '22
  23. 23.00 23.01 23.02 23.03 23.04 23.05 23.06 23.07 23.08 23.09 23.10 23.11 23.12 23.13 23.14 23.15 23.16 23.17 23.18 23.19 23.20 23.21 23.22 23.23 23.24 23.25 Grand Prix summarising the event. Retrieved 16th Sep '22
  24. 24.0 24.1 24.2 ESPN noting that the 1960 Dutch Grand Prix was Ireland and Hill's first podiums, and summarising Gurney's crash. Retrieved 16th Sep '22
  25. 25.0 25.1 25.2 25.3 The Crash Photos Database detailing the Gurney-Aalders accident and providing photos of it. Retrieved 16th Sep '22
  26. 26.00 26.01 26.02 26.03 26.04 26.05 26.06 26.07 26.08 26.09 26.10 26.11 26.12 26.13 26.14 26.15 26.16 Racing-Reference detailing the qualifying and race results of the 1961 Italian Grand Prix. Retrieved 28th Sep '22
  27. Ultimate Car Page listing all instances of the Italian Grand Prix. Retrieved 28th Sep '22
  28. F1 Experiences detailing facts regarding the Italian Grand Prix. Retrieved 28th Sep '22
  29. Scuderia Ferrari Club detailing how Monza is considered the home of Ferrari. Retrieved 28th Sep '22
  30. 30.00 30.01 30.02 30.03 30.04 30.05 30.06 30.07 30.08 30.09 30.10 30.11 30.12 30.13 30.14 30.15 30.16 30.17 30.18 30.19 30.20 30.21 30.22 30.23 30.24 30.25 30.26 30.27 30.28 30.29 30.30 30.31 30.32 Motor Sport providing a detailed 1961 Italian Grand Prix report. Retrieved 28th Sep '22
  31. 31.00 31.01 31.02 31.03 31.04 31.05 31.06 31.07 31.08 31.09 31.10 31.11 31.12 31.13 31.14 31.15 31.16 31.17 31.18 31.19 31.20 31.21 31.22 31.23 31.24 31.25 31.26 31.27 31.28 ESPN summarising the 1961 Italian Grand Prix. Retrieved 28th Sep '22
  32. 32.00 32.01 32.02 32.03 32.04 32.05 32.06 32.07 32.08 32.09 32.10 32.11 32.12 32.13 32.14 32.15 32.16 32.17 32.18 32.19 32.20 32.21 32.22 Grand Prix summarising the 1961 Italian Grand Prix. Retrieved 28th Sep '22
  33. 33.00 33.01 33.02 33.03 33.04 33.05 33.06 33.07 33.08 33.09 33.10 33.11 33.12 33.13 33.14 33.15 33.16 33.17 33.18 33.19 33.20 33.21 33.22 33.23 33.24 33.25 33.26 33.27 33.28 33.29 33.30 33.31 33.32 33.33 33.34 33.35 33.36 33.37 33.38 33.39 33.40 33.41 33.42 33.43 Race Fans documenting the 1961 Italian Grand Prix and the disaster. Retrieved 28th Sep '22
  34. 34.0 34.1 34.2 Stats F1 detailing the Drivers' and Constructors' Championship standings heading into the 1961 Italian Grand Prix. Retrieved 28th Sep '22
  35. 35.0 35.1 Motorsport Memorial detailing the life and career of Rodriguez, including him becoming the youngest driver to compete at a World Championship event until 2009. Retrieved 28th Sep '22
  36. NBC Sports noting Rodriguez was the youngest to qualify on the front row of a World Championship race until 2016. Retrieved 28th Sep '22
  37. 37.00 37.01 37.02 37.03 37.04 37.05 37.06 37.07 37.08 37.09 37.10 37.11 37.12 37.13 Motorsport Memorial page for Wolfgang von Trips. Retrieved 28th Sep '22
  38. Stats F1 detailing the Drivers' and Constructors' Championship standings following the 1961 Italian Grand Prix. Retrieved 28th Sep '22
  39. F1-Fansite detailing the list of Formula One World Champions by year and nationality. Retrieved 28th Sep '22
  40. 40.0 40.1 40.2 40.3 40.4 40.5 40.6 40.7 The Crash Photos Database detailing the 1961 Italian Grand Prix accident and providing photos of it. Retrieved 28th Sep '22
  41. 41.0 41.1 ESPN detailing von Trips and his "Taffy" nickname. Retrieved 28th Sep '22
  42. 42.0 42.1 42.2 F1 Chronicle detailing the history of the Monaco Grand Prix. Retrieved 6th Nov '22
  43. Ultimate Car Page providing a list of Monaco Grand Prix. Retrieved 6th Nov '22
  44. 44.00 44.01 44.02 44.03 44.04 44.05 44.06 44.07 44.08 44.09 44.10 44.11 44.12 44.13 44.14 Racing-Reference detailing the qualifying and race results of the 1962 Monaco Grand Prix. Retrieved 6th Nov '22
  45. Topend Sports detailing the Triple Crown of Motorsport. Retrieved 6th Nov '22
  46. 46.00 46.01 46.02 46.03 46.04 46.05 46.06 46.07 46.08 46.09 46.10 46.11 46.12 46.13 46.14 46.15 46.16 46.17 46.18 46.19 46.20 46.21 46.22 46.23 46.24 46.25 46.26 46.27 46.28 46.29 46.30 46.31 46.32 46.33 46.34 46.35 46.36 46.37 46.38 46.39 46.40 46.41 Motor Sport providing a detailed 1962 Monaco Grand Prix report. Retrieved 6th Nov '22
  47. 47.00 47.01 47.02 47.03 47.04 47.05 47.06 47.07 47.08 47.09 47.10 47.11 47.12 47.13 47.14 47.15 47.16 ESPN summarising the 1962 Monaco Grand Prix. Retrieved 6th Nov '22
  48. 48.00 48.01 48.02 48.03 48.04 48.05 48.06 48.07 48.08 48.09 48.10 48.11 48.12 48.13 48.14 48.15 48.16 48.17 48.18 48.19 48.20 Grand Prix summarising the 1962 Monaco Grand Prix. Retrieved 6th Nov '22
  49. 49.0 49.1 49.2 49.3 Motorsport Memorial page for Ange Baldoni. Retrieved 6th Nov '22
  50. 50.0 50.1 Ultimate Car Page listing all Belgian Grand Prix. Retrieved 4th Jun '23
  51. 51.0 51.1 Chase Your Sport detailing the history of the Belgian Grand Prix. Retrieved 4th Jun '23
  52. 52.00 52.01 52.02 52.03 52.04 52.05 52.06 52.07 52.08 52.09 52.10 52.11 52.12 52.13 52.14 52.15 52.16 Racing-Reference detailing the qualifying and race results of the 1966 Belgian Grand Prix. Retrieved 4th Jun '23
  53. 53.00 53.01 53.02 53.03 53.04 53.05 53.06 53.07 53.08 53.09 53.10 53.11 53.12 53.13 53.14 53.15 53.16 53.17 53.18 53.19 53.20 53.21 53.22 53.23 53.24 53.25 53.26 53.27 53.28 53.29 53.30 53.31 53.32 Motor Sport providing a detailed 1966 Belgian Grand Prix report. Retrieved 4th Jun '23
  54. 54.00 54.01 54.02 54.03 54.04 54.05 54.06 54.07 54.08 54.09 54.10 54.11 54.12 54.13 54.14 54.15 54.16 54.17 54.18 54.19 54.20 54.21 54.22 54.23 54.24 Grand Prix summarising the 1966 Belgian Grand Prix's qualifying and race. Retrieved 4th Jun '23
  55. 55.00 55.01 55.02 55.03 55.04 55.05 55.06 55.07 55.08 55.09 55.10 55.11 Blu-Ray detailing the 1966 Belgian Grand Prix's role as part of Grand Prix. Retrieved 4th Jun '23
  56. 56.00 56.01 56.02 56.03 56.04 56.05 56.06 56.07 56.08 56.09 56.10 56.11 56.12 56.13 56.14 56.15 56.16 56.17 56.18 56.19 56.20 56.21 56.22 56.23 56.24 56.25 ESPN summarising the race and Stewart's accident. Retrieved 4th Jun '23
  57. 57.00 57.01 57.02 57.03 57.04 57.05 57.06 57.07 57.08 57.09 57.10 The Drive detailing Stewart's extensive safety campaign following his accident at the 1966 Belgian Grand Prix. Retrieved 4th Jun '23
  58. Grand Prix noting Stewart made his return at the 1966 British Grand Prix. Retrieved 4th Jun '23
  59. 59.00 59.01 59.02 59.03 59.04 59.05 59.06 59.07 59.08 59.09 59.10 59.11 59.12 59.13 59.14 59.15 59.16 59.17 59.18 59.19 59.20 59.21 Grand Prix summarising the 1967 Monaco Grand Prix and Bandini's fatal accident. Retrieved 31st May '23
  60. 60.00 60.01 60.02 60.03 60.04 60.05 60.06 60.07 60.08 60.09 60.10 60.11 60.12 60.13 60.14 60.15 60.16 60.17 60.18 60.19 60.20 60.21 60.22 60.23 60.24 60.25 60.26 60.27 60.28 60.29 60.30 60.31 60.32 60.33 60.34 60.35 60.36 60.37 60.38 60.39 60.40 60.41 Motor Sport providing a detailed 1967 Monaco Grand Prix race report. Retrieved 31st May '23
  61. 61.00 61.01 61.02 61.03 61.04 61.05 61.06 61.07 61.08 61.09 61.10 61.11 61.12 61.13 61.14 61.15 61.16 61.17 61.18 61.19 61.20 61.21 61.22 ESPN reporting on the 1967 Monaco Grand Prix and Bandini's fatal accident. Retrieved 31st May '23
  62. 62.00 62.01 62.02 62.03 62.04 62.05 62.06 62.07 62.08 62.09 62.10 62.11 62.12 62.13 62.14 Racing-Reference detailing the results of the 1967 Monaco Grand Prix. Retrieved 31st May '23
  63. 63.00 63.01 63.02 63.03 63.04 63.05 63.06 63.07 63.08 63.09 63.10 63.11 63.12 63.13 63.14 63.15 63.16 63.17 63.18 63.19 63.20 63.21 63.22 63.23 63.24 63.25 63.26 Motorsport Memorial page for Bandini. Retrieved 31st May '23
  64. 64.00 64.01 64.02 64.03 64.04 64.05 64.06 64.07 64.08 64.09 64.10 64.11 64.12 64.13 64.14 64.15 64.16 64.17 64.18 64.19 64.20 64.21 64.22 64.23 64.24 Motor Sport detailing the career and death of Bandini. Retrieved 31st May '23
  65. 65.00 65.01 65.02 65.03 65.04 65.05 65.06 65.07 65.08 65.09 65.10 65.11 10th May 1967 issue of Madera Tribune reporting on the death of Bandini. Retrieved 31st May '23
  66. 66.0 66.1 66.2 66.3 66.4 Motor Sport noting Ferrari did not compete at the 1968 Monaco Grand Prix and detailing the changes made following Bandini's death a year prior. Retrieved 31st May '23
  67. 67.00 67.01 67.02 67.03 67.04 67.05 67.06 67.07 67.08 67.09 67.10 67.11 67.12 67.13 67.14 67.15 67.16 67.17 67.18 67.19 67.20 67.21 67.22 67.23 67.24 67.25 67.26 67.27 67.28 67.29 67.30 67.31 67.32 67.33 67.34 67.35 67.36 67.37 Motor Sport providing a detailed 1968 French Grand Prix report. Retrieved 2nd Jun '23
  68. 68.00 68.01 68.02 68.03 68.04 68.05 68.06 68.07 68.08 68.09 68.10 68.11 68.12 68.13 68.14 68.15 68.16 68.17 68.18 68.19 68.20 ESPN summarising the 1968 French Grand Prix and Schlesser's fatal accident. Retrieved 2nd Jun '23
  69. 69.00 69.01 69.02 69.03 69.04 69.05 69.06 69.07 69.08 69.09 69.10 69.11 69.12 69.13 69.14 69.15 69.16 69.17 69.18 69.19 69.20 69.21 69.22 69.23 Grand Prix summarising the 1968 French Grand Prix's qualifying and race, and of Schlesser's accident. Retrieved 2nd Jun '23
  70. 70.00 70.01 70.02 70.03 70.04 70.05 70.06 70.07 70.08 70.09 70.10 70.11 70.12 70.13 70.14 70.15 70.16 70.17 70.18 70.19 The "Forgotten" Drivers of F1's biography on Schlesser. Retrieved 2nd Jun '23
  71. 71.0 71.1 71.2 71.3 71.4 71.5 71.6 71.7 71.8 F1 Technical detailing the troubled history of the Honda RA302. Retrieved 2nd Jun '23
  72. 72.00 72.01 72.02 72.03 72.04 72.05 72.06 72.07 72.08 72.09 72.10 72.11 72.12 72.13 72.14 Racing-Reference detailing the qualifying and race results of the 1968 French Grand Prix. Retrieved 2nd Jun '23
  73. 73.00 73.01 73.02 73.03 73.04 73.05 73.06 73.07 73.08 73.09 73.10 73.11 73.12 73.13 73.14 73.15 73.16 Motorsport Memorial page on Schlesser. Retrieved 2nd Jun '23
  74. 74.0 74.1 74.2 74.3 74.4 74.5 The Crash Photos Database summarising Schlesser's crash and providing photos of it. Retrieved 2nd Jun '23
  75. 75.00 75.01 75.02 75.03 75.04 75.05 75.06 75.07 75.08 75.09 75.10 75.11 75.12 75.13 75.14 75.15 75.16 75.17 75.18 75.19 75.20 75.21 75.22 75.23 75.24 75.25 75.26 75.27 75.28 75.29 75.30 75.31 75.32 75.33 75.34 75.35 Motor Sport providing a detailed 1970 Dutch Grand Prix report. Retrieved 1st Aug' 23
  76. 76.00 76.01 76.02 76.03 76.04 76.05 76.06 76.07 76.08 76.09 76.10 76.11 76.12 76.13 76.14 76.15 76.16 76.17 Racing-Reference detailing the qualifying and race results of the 1970 Dutch Grand Prix. Retrieved 1st Aug' 23
  77. 77.0 77.1 77.2 77.3 77.4 Collier Automedia documenting the history of the Lotus 72. Retrieved 1st Aug' 23
  78. 78.00 78.01 78.02 78.03 78.04 78.05 78.06 78.07 78.08 78.09 78.10 78.11 78.12 78.13 78.14 78.15 78.16 78.17 78.18 78.19 78.20 78.21 Grand Prix summarising the 1970 Dutch Grand Prix. Retrieved 1st Aug' 23
  79. 79.00 79.01 79.02 79.03 79.04 79.05 79.06 79.07 79.08 79.09 79.10 79.11 79.12 79.13 79.14 79.15 79.16 ESPN summarising the 1970 Dutch Grand Prix. Retrieved 1st Aug' 23
  80. 80.0 80.1 80.2 80.3 80.4 80.5 80.6 80.7 The "Forgotten" Drivers of F1 detailing the career of Piers Courage. Retrieved 1st Aug' 23
  81. 81.0 81.1 81.2 81.3 81.4 81.5 81.6 Motorsport Memorial page for Pier Courage. Retrieved 1st Aug' 23
  82. 82.0 82.1 82.2 82.3 82.4 82.5 The Pitcrew Online summarising the career of Pier Courage and his fatal accident at the 1970 Dutch Grand Prix. Retrieved 1st Aug' 23
  83. 83.0 83.1 83.2 83.3 83.4 83.5 Motor Sport reflecting on the life and career of Piers Courage. Retrieved 1st Aug' 23
  84. 84.0 84.1 F1 Experiences summarising the history of the United States Grand Prix. Retrieved 2nd Aug' 23
  85. 85.0 85.1 Racing Circuits detailing the history of Watkins Glen, including its involvement in Formula One. Retrieved 2nd Aug' 23
  86. 86.0 86.1 Chicane F1 listing the United States Grand Prix events. Retrieved 2nd Aug' 23
  87. 87.00 87.01 87.02 87.03 87.04 87.05 87.06 87.07 87.08 87.09 87.10 87.11 87.12 87.13 87.14 87.15 87.16 87.17 87.18 87.19 87.20 87.21 Racing-Reference detailing the qualifying and race results of the 1974 United States Grand Prix. Retrieved 2nd Aug' 23
  88. Bleacher Report documenting François Cevert and his fatal accident during qualifying for the 1973 United States Grand Prix. Retrieved 2nd Aug' 23
  89. 89.00 89.01 89.02 89.03 89.04 89.05 89.06 89.07 89.08 89.09 89.10 89.11 89.12 89.13 The New York Times reporting on the 1974 United States Grand Prix and Koinigg's fatal accident. Retrieved 2nd Aug' 23
  90. 90.00 90.01 90.02 90.03 90.04 90.05 90.06 90.07 90.08 90.09 90.10 90.11 90.12 90.13 90.14 90.15 90.16 90.17 90.18 90.19 90.20 90.21 90.22 90.23 90.24 90.25 90.26 90.27 90.28 90.29 90.30 90.31 90.32 90.33 90.34 90.35 90.36 90.37 90.38 90.39 90.40 90.41 Motor Sport providing a detailed 1974 United States Grand Prix report. Retrieved 2nd Aug' 23
  91. 91.00 91.01 91.02 91.03 91.04 91.05 91.06 91.07 91.08 91.09 91.10 91.11 91.12 91.13 91.14 91.15 91.16 91.17 91.18 91.19 91.20 91.21 91.22 91.23 91.24 91.25 Grand Prix summarising the 1974 United States Grand Prix. Retrieved 2nd Aug' 23
  92. 92.00 92.01 92.02 92.03 92.04 92.05 92.06 92.07 92.08 92.09 92.10 92.11 92.12 92.13 92.14 92.15 92.16 92.17 ESPN summarising the 1974 United States Grand Prix. Retrieved 2nd Aug' 23
  93. 93.00 93.01 93.02 93.03 93.04 93.05 93.06 93.07 93.08 93.09 93.10 93.11 93.12 93.13 93.14 93.15 93.16 93.17 93.18 Racerhead where Steve Erlichman documented his attending of the 1974 United States Grand Prix. Retrieved 2nd Aug' 23
  94. 94.00 94.01 94.02 94.03 94.04 94.05 94.06 94.07 94.08 94.09 94.10 94.11 94.12 The "Forgotten" Drivers of F1 detailing the career of Helmuth Koinigg. Retrieved 2nd Aug' 23
  95. 95.0 95.1 95.2 95.3 95.4 WTF1 summarising Tim Schenken illegally competing at the 1974 United States Grand Prix. Retrieved 2nd Aug' 23
  96. 96.0 96.1 96.2 Bangshift detailing the Bog shenanigans at the 1974 United States Grand Prix. Retrieved 2nd Aug' 23
  97. 97.0 97.1 97.2 97.3 Autoweek documenting the Bog incidents at the 1974 United States Grand Prix, and the mystery surrounding the coach stealer. Retrieved 2nd Aug' 23
  98. 98.00 98.01 98.02 98.03 98.04 98.05 98.06 98.07 98.08 98.09 98.10 Motorsport Memorial page for Helmuth Koinigg. Retrieved 2nd Aug' 23
  99. 99.0 99.1 99.2 99.3 99.4 99.5 99.6 The Crash Photos Database summarising Koinigg's crash and providing photos of it. Retrieved 2nd Aug' 23
  100. Motor Sport detailing safety changes made to Watkins Glen prior to the 1975 United States Grand Prix Retrieved 2nd Aug' 23
  101. 101.0 101.1 Planet F1 comparing Romain Grojean's 2020 Bahrain Grand Prix accident with Koinigg's fatal crash, to illustrate safety enhancements in Formula One. Retrieved 2nd Aug' 23
  102. 102.0 102.1 102.2 102.3 Chicane F1 providing a list of Spanish Grand Prix. Retrieved 3rd Aug' 23
  103. 103.0 103.1 103.2 103.3 103.4 Grand Prix Experience summarising the history of the Spanish Grand Prix. Retrieved 3rd Aug' 23
  104. 104.00 104.01 104.02 104.03 104.04 104.05 104.06 104.07 104.08 104.09 104.10 104.11 104.12 104.13 104.14 104.15 104.16 104.17 104.18 104.19 104.20 104.21 104.22 104.23 104.24 104.25 104.26 104.27 104.28 Racing Circuits detailing the history of the Montjuïc circuit. Retrieved 3rd Aug' 23
  105. 105.00 105.01 105.02 105.03 105.04 105.05 105.06 105.07 105.08 105.09 105.10 105.11 105.12 105.13 105.14 105.15 105.16 105.17 105.18 105.19 105.20 105.21 105.22 Racing-Reference detailing the qualifying and race results of the 1975 Spanish Grand Prix. Retrieved 3rd Aug' 23
  106. 106.00 106.01 106.02 106.03 106.04 106.05 106.06 106.07 106.08 106.09 106.10 106.11 106.12 106.13 106.14 106.15 106.16 106.17 106.18 106.19 106.20 106.21 106.22 106.23 106.24 106.25 106.26 106.27 106.28 106.29 106.30 106.31 106.32 106.33 106.34 106.35 106.36 106.37 106.38 106.39 106.40 106.41 106.42 106.43 106.44 106.45 106.46 106.47 106.48 106.49 106.50 Motor Sport providing a detailed 1975 Spanish Grand Prix report. Retrieved 3rd Aug' 23
  107. 107.00 107.01 107.02 107.03 107.04 107.05 107.06 107.07 107.08 107.09 107.10 107.11 107.12 107.13 107.14 107.15 107.16 107.17 107.18 107.19 107.20 107.21 107.22 107.23 107.24 107.25 107.26 107.27 107.28 107.29 107.30 107.31 107.32 107.33 107.34 107.35 107.36 107.37 107.38 Motor Sport reflecting on the 1975 Spanish Grand Prix and the fatal crash. Retrieved 3rd Aug' 23
  108. 108.00 108.01 108.02 108.03 108.04 108.05 108.06 108.07 108.08 108.09 108.10 108.11 108.12 108.13 108.14 108.15 108.16 108.17 108.18 108.19 108.20 108.21 108.22 108.23 Divebomb detailing the 1975 Spanish Grand Prix and its fatal accident. Retrieved 3rd Aug' 23
  109. 109.00 109.01 109.02 109.03 109.04 109.05 109.06 109.07 109.08 109.09 109.10 109.11 109.12 109.13 109.14 109.15 109.16 109.17 109.18 109.19 109.20 109.21 109.22 109.23 109.24 109.25 109.26 109.27 109.28 109.29 109.30 109.31 109.32 ESPN summarising the 1975 Spanish Grand Prix. Retrieved 3rd Aug' 23
  110. 110.00 110.01 110.02 110.03 110.04 110.05 110.06 110.07 110.08 110.09 110.10 110.11 110.12 110.13 110.14 110.15 110.16 110.17 110.18 110.19 110.20 110.21 110.22 110.23 110.24 110.25 110.26 110.27 110.28 110.29 110.30 110.31 Grand Prix summarising the 1975 Spanish Grand Prix. Retrieved 3rd Aug' 23
  111. 111.0 111.1 111.2 The "Forgotten" Drivers of F1 biography on Lella Lombardi. Retrieved 3rd Aug' 23
  112. 112.00 112.01 112.02 112.03 112.04 112.05 112.06 112.07 112.08 112.09 112.10 The Crash Photos Database summarising the 1975 Spanish Grand Prix crash and providing photos of it. Retrieved 3rd Aug' 23
  113. Motorsport Memorial page for Mario de Roia and other victims of the fatal accident at the 1975 Spanish Grand Prix. Retrieved 3rd Aug' 23
  114. 114.0 114.1 114.2 The "Forgotten" Drivers of F1 detailing the career of Rolf Stommelen. Retrieved 3rd Aug' 23
  115. 115.0 115.1 115.2 Motorsport Memorial page for Rolf Stommelen. Retrieved 3rd Aug' 23
  116. 116.0 116.1 116.2 Ultimate Car Page listing the South African Grand Prix held as part of the Formula One calendar. Retrieved 29th Jul' 23
  117. 117.0 117.1 Racing Circuits detailing the history of the Kyalami Circuit. Retrieved 29th Jul' 23
  118. 118.0 118.1 Vice documenting the controversial runnings of the South African Grand Prix during the Apartheid regime. Retrieved 29th Jul' 23
  119. 119.00 119.01 119.02 119.03 119.04 119.05 119.06 119.07 119.08 119.09 119.10 Racing-Reference detailing the qualifying and race results of the 1977 South African Grand Prix. Retrieved 29th Jul' 23
  120. Independent reporting on the FIA's decision not to return to South Africa for 2024. Retrieved 29th Jul' 23
  121. 121.00 121.01 121.02 121.03 121.04 121.05 121.06 121.07 121.08 121.09 121.10 121.11 121.12 121.13 121.14 121.15 121.16 121.17 121.18 121.19 121.20 121.21 121.22 121.23 121.24 121.25 121.26 Motor Sport providing a detailed race report of the 1977 South African Grand Prix. Retrieved 29th Jul' 23
  122. 122.00 122.01 122.02 122.03 122.04 122.05 122.06 122.07 122.08 122.09 122.10 122.11 122.12 122.13 122.14 122.15 122.16 122.17 122.18 122.19 122.20 122.21 122.22 122.23 ESPN summarising the 1977 South African Grand Prix. Retrieved 29th Jul' 23
  123. 123.00 123.01 123.02 123.03 123.04 123.05 123.06 123.07 123.08 123.09 123.10 Grand Prix summarising the 1977 South African Grand Prix. Retrieved 29th Jul' 23
  124. 124.00 124.01 124.02 124.03 124.04 124.05 124.06 124.07 124.08 124.09 124.10 124.11 124.12 124.13 124.14 124.15 124.16 124.17 124.18 124.19 124.20 Motorsport Memorial page for Tom Pryce. Retrieved 29th Jul' 23
  125. 125.00 125.01 125.02 125.03 125.04 125.05 125.06 125.07 125.08 125.09 125.10 125.11 Archived Historic Racing biography of Tom Pryce, also detailing the extent of Frederik Jansen van Vuuren's injuries. Retrieved 29th Jul' 23
  126. 126.00 126.01 126.02 126.03 126.04 126.05 126.06 126.07 126.08 126.09 126.10 126.11 126.12 126.13 Bleacher Report reflecting on the fatal collision at the 1977 South African Grand Prix. Retrieved 29th Jul' 23
  127. 127.0 127.1 127.2 127.3 127.4 127.5 127.6 127.7 127.8 127.9 Motorsport Memorial page for Frederik Jansen van Vuuren. Retrieved 29th Jul' 23
  128. 128.00 128.01 128.02 128.03 128.04 128.05 128.06 128.07 128.08 128.09 128.10 128.11 128.12 128.13 The Many Faces of Death detailing the fatal collision at the 1977 South African Grand Prix. Retrieved 29th Jul' 23
  129. New Atlas reporting on an academic study of the top 50 Formula One drivers. Retrieved 29th Jul' 23
  130. Archived website detailing the Tom Pryce Trophy. Retrieved 29th Jul' 23
  131. Motorsport noting the accusations Renzo Zorzi faced following the 1977 South African Grand Prix (article in Italian). Retrieved 29th Jul' 23
  132. 132.00 132.01 132.02 132.03 132.04 132.05 132.06 132.07 132.08 132.09 132.10 132.11 132.12 132.13 132.14 132.15 132.16 132.17 132.18 132.19 132.20 132.21 132.22 132.23 132.24 132.25 132.26 132.27 132.28 132.29 132.30 132.31 132.32 132.33 132.34 132.35 132.36 132.37 132.38 132.39 132.40 132.41 132.42 132.43 132.44 132.45 Grand Prix summarising the 1978 Italian Grand Prix. Retrieved 5th Aug '23
  133. 133.00 133.01 133.02 133.03 133.04 133.05 133.06 133.07 133.08 133.09 133.10 133.11 133.12 133.13 133.14 133.15 133.16 133.17 133.18 133.19 133.20 133.21 133.22 133.23 133.24 133.25 133.26 133.27 133.28 Atlas F1 detailing Peterson's fatal accident and the safety measures put in place following the 1978 Italian Grand Prix. Retrieved 5th Aug '23
  134. 134.0 134.1 134.2 134.3 134.4 Autosport documenting Peterson's final season, harnessing quotes from the Swede. Retrieved 5th Aug '23
  135. STATS F1 summarising the points standings heading into the 1978 Italian Grand Prix. Retrieved 5th Aug '23
  136. 136.00 136.01 136.02 136.03 136.04 136.05 136.06 136.07 136.08 136.09 136.10 136.11 136.12 136.13 136.14 136.15 136.16 136.17 136.18 136.19 136.20 136.21 136.22 136.23 136.24 Motorsport Memorial page for Ronnie Peterson. Retrieved 5th Aug '23
  137. 137.00 137.01 137.02 137.03 137.04 137.05 137.06 137.07 137.08 137.09 137.10 137.11 137.12 137.13 137.14 137.15 137.16 137.17 137.18 137.19 137.20 137.21 137.22 137.23 137.24 137.25 137.26 137.27 137.28 137.29 137.30 137.31 137.32 137.33 137.34 137.35 137.36 137.37 137.38 137.39 137.40 137.41 137.42 137.43 137.44 137.45 137.46 137.47 137.48 137.49 137.50 137.51 137.52 137.53 Motor Sport providing a detailed 1978 Italian Grand Prix report. Retrieved 5th Aug '23
  138. 138.00 138.01 138.02 138.03 138.04 138.05 138.06 138.07 138.08 138.09 138.10 138.11 138.12 138.13 138.14 138.15 138.16 Racing-Reference detailing the qualifying and race results of the 1978 Italian Grand Prix. Retrieved 5th Aug '23
  139. 139.00 139.01 139.02 139.03 139.04 139.05 139.06 139.07 139.08 139.09 139.10 139.11 139.12 139.13 139.14 139.15 139.16 139.17 139.18 139.19 139.20 139.21 139.22 139.23 139.24 139.25 139.26 139.27 139.28 139.29 139.30 139.31 139.32 139.33 139.34 139.35 139.36 ESPN summarising the 1978 Italian Grand Prix. Retrieved 5th Aug '23
  140. 140.0 140.1 140.2 140.3 140.4 140.5 140.6 The Crash Photos Database summarising Peterson's fatal accident and providing photos of it. Retrieved 5th Aug '23
  141. The "Forgotten" Drivers of F1 summarising Vittorio Brambilla's career. Retrieved 5th Aug '23
  142. 142.0 142.1 Cleveland Clinic summarising Fat Embolism Syndrome. Retrieved 5th Aug '23
  143. 143.0 143.1 143.2 143.3 143.4 143.5 143.6 143.7 143.8 ESPN detailing the troubles Patrese experienced following Peterson's death at the 1978 Italian Grand Prix, and how he was cleared of blame. Retrieved 5th Aug '23
  144. 144.0 144.1 144.2 144.3 144.4 144.5 144.6 144.7 144.8 144.9 Motor Sport detailing Patrese's career and his dramatic change in reputation from 1978 to 1993. Retrieved 5th Aug '23
  145. UPI reporting on Patrese and Gianni Restilli being cleared of manslaughter over Peterson's fatal accident. Retrieved 5th Aug '23
  146. UPI reporting on new information surrounding the judges' decision regarding clearing Patrese and Restilli of blame. Retrieved 5th Aug '23
  147. 147.0 147.1 Racing Circuits detailing the history of the Monza Circuit and the safety enhancements made to it over the years. Retrieved 5th Aug '23
  148. 148.0 148.1 BBC Genome archive of Radio Times issues detailing the Sportsview broadcast of the 1958 French Grand Prix. Retrieved 17th Aug '22
  149. 149.0 149.1 Issue 1,808 of Radio Times listing the Sportsview broadcast of the 1958 French Grand Prix. Retrieved 17th Aug '22
  150. 150.00 150.01 150.02 150.03 150.04 150.05 150.06 150.07 150.08 150.09 150.10 150.11 150.12 150.13 150.14 150.15 150.16 150.17 150.18 150.19 150.20 150.21 150.22 150.23 150.24 150.25 150.26 150.27 150.28 150.29 150.30 150.31 List of Formula One television broadcasts, including for the aforementioned races. Retrieved 17th Aug '22
  151. BBC Genome archive of Radio Times issues detailing the Sportsview broadcast of the 1958 Moroccan Grand Prix. Retrieved 10th Sep '22
  152. Issue 1,823 of Radio Times listing the Sportsview special for the 1958 Moroccan Grand Prix. Retrieved 10th Sep '22
  153. BBC Genome archive of Radio Times issues detailing the BBC's live coverage of the race. Retrieved 16th Sep '22
  154. 154.0 154.1 British Pathé providing newsreel footage of the 1960 Dutch Grand Prix, also including aftermath shots of Gurney's crash. Retrieved 16th Sep '22
  155. BBC Genome archive of Radio Times issues detailing the BBC coverage of the 1961 Italian Grand Prix as part of Sportsview. Retrieved 28th Sep '22
  156. BBC Genome archive of Radio Times issues detailing the BBC's live coverage of the 1962 Monaco Grand Prix. Retrieved 6th Nov '22
  157. Autoweek detailing the Mediterranean Holiday film of the 1962 Monaco Grand Prix. Retrieved 6th Nov '22
  158. 158.0 158.1 Issue 2,222 of Radio Times detailing the BBC's coverage of the 1966 Belgian Grand Prix. Retrieved 4th Jun '23
  159. 159.0 159.1 159.2 159.3 Issue 2,269 of Radio Times detailing the BBC's coverage of the 1967 Monaco Grand Prix. Retrieved 31st May '23
  160. 160.0 160.1 160.2 160.3 The New York Times reporting on ABC's broadcast of the 1967 Monaco Grand Prix and the controversy of the broadcast showing graphic close-up footage of Bandini. Retrieved 31st May '23
  161. ESPN summarising the first sponsored Formula One car, which prevented Eurovision broadcasts in 1968. Retrieved 2nd Jun '23
  162. Issue 2,782 of Radio Times detailing BBC One's coverage of the 1977 South African Grand Prix. Retrieved 29th Jul' 23
  163. Formula One Stuff providing full race broadcasts for some 1977 races, but only highlights for the 1977 South African Grand Prix. Retrieved 29th Jul' 23
  164. Formula One Stuff announcing it has a full copy of the 1978 Italian Grand Prix. Retrieved 5th Aug '23
  165. MusclecarFilms announcing it has a full copy of the 1973 Dutch Grand Prix. Retrieved 5th Aug '23