Tombstone Thunderbird Photograph (lost photo of cryptid; existence unconfirmed; 1890)

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Andrew Minniear's illustration depicting what many have described the Tombstone Thunderbird photo as resembling.

Status: Existence Unconfirmed

The Tombstone Thunderbird Photograph refers to an ongoing mystery surrounding a possible unidentified bird, or some other winged creature discovered in Tombstone, Arizona and described as a "strange winged monster" in an April 1890 edition of Tombstone Epitaph. The cryptid is alleged to have resembled a thunderbird, a mythological creature in Native American culture. Others have described it as pterosaur-like. According to various reports over the years, it was killed by ranchers, who then proceeded to take a photograph with themselves in front of the bird's corpse nailed onto a barn, or onto a wall of another building. Despite many people claiming to have seen the photo in question, its existence has never been proven, leading some to speculate that it is an example of the Mandela Effect. Numerous images have been cited as the alleged thunderbird photo, with many subsequently debunked.


The mystery's origins trace back to the 26th April 1890 issue of Tombstone Epitaph.[1][2] The newspaper reported that two ranchers had discovered a "winged monster" which had been recovering from a long flight.[1] After overcoming their astonishment, the men proceeded to hunt the bird via horseback for several miles.[1] While the bird put up a fight, it was eventually killed via several blasts from Winchester rifles.[1] The men measured the creature, determining it to be 160 feet in length and fifty inches in diameter. Its head was around eight feet long, with its thick wings about 78 feet each in length.[1][2] It was summarised by the newspaper as resembling a "huge alligator with an extremely elongated tail and an immense pair of wings."[1][2]

While other newspapers later recirculated the story, they never elaborated on the men that killed the bird nor mentioned or provided any photographs of the incident.[3][2] Eventually, the story would be forgotten for many decades, only for it to re-materialise in an 1963 issue of Saga.[4][5][2] According to its author, Jack Pearl, the incident was reported in an 1886 edition of Tombstone Epitaph.[5] He was also the first to compare it to the thunderbird; the thunderbird is a mythological supernatural bird in Native American culture, which possesses extensive power and strength, including by flashing its eyes to create lightning and establishing thunder simply by flapping its wings.[6][5][4] The mystery would commence from here, as Pearl also claimed the mysterious bird was photographed by the ranchers.[5][2] He described the photo, stating the bird had been hauled into town via wagon and was nailed to a wall with its wings spread out, while six men are in front of the corpse with their arms outstretched and touching each other fingertip to fingertip.[7][5][2]

Pearl's photograph claim contradicts the fact none of the original story's publications stated any photos were ever taken.[5][1][2] Yet, the story would trigger a major revelation, as many people in the decades since have claimed they have seen the photograph in question.[5][2] Among those include researcher W. Ritchie Benedict, who stated a 1960s Canadian television program showed the image, while others recalled seeing it in newspapers and magazines like Fate and National Geographic.[5] Additionally, others have described the bird as more resembling a pterodactyl, a long-extinct pterosaur that roamed the Earth from the Late Jurassic through to the Late Cretaceous period.[8][5] However, while many have claimed to have seen the image, none have provided it, with the alleged sources of the photo searched through yet yielding no results.[5][2] It has led to Fate and Strange Magazine writer Mark Chorvinsky to deduce two possibilities; one is that Pearl hoaxed the photograph claim, which later turned into a Mandela Effect, a phenomenon where multiple people share a similar false recollection of events.[9][5][2] The alternative theory is that Pearl found a source of the photo that therefore predates his Saga article.[5][2]

Similar Thunderbird Reports

It was later discovered that reports of a monster bird predated the Tombstone Epitaph's coverage.[2] In January 1882, the Arizona Weekly Citizen reported that a "monster eagle", about 7 feet and 4 inches in size, was killed after it attacked a man.[10][2] Two months later, both The New York Times and the Sacramento Daily Record-Union relayed a report from The Gridley Herald.[11][12]It told the story of two lumberjacks, Thomas Campbell and Joseph Howard, who, depending on the publication, encountered the bird while working at a timber five miles northeast of Hurleton, California or in Missouri.[11][12][2] These reports were the first to identify the bird as crocodile-like.[2][11][12] Unlike the Tombstone Epitaph story, the bird was not killed despite Howard firing a shotgun barrel at it, the attack seemingly dealing little inconvenience aside from causing the bird to cry like "a calf and a bear combined".[11][12][2]

As mentioned previously, the Tombstone Epitaph story was republished in other newspapers, like The Sunday Examiner.[13][2] While an 1890 issue of a San Diego paper determined the incident as an "Examiner fake", it also reported that the son of local Judge Dillar had witnessed a similar bird while exploring the hills of the city park.[13][2] While the newspaper was again quick to deem the story as "improbable", it was the first to claim that a picture of the bird killed in Arizona was taken.[13][2] When it was shown to the boy, he clarified that it was precisely what he had seen.[13][2] It should be noted that the newspaper may not have been referring to a photo, as in that same year, an illustration of the alleged bird was published in The San Francisco Examiner.[14][2] In 1892, General Noble, a Giant Sequoia tree, was cut down so that an exhibit could be produced for the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition.[15] While it appears this story has no correlation with the thunderbird mystery, researchers have noted similarities with a photo taken before the tree's destruction.[2][15] In it, lumberjacks surround the tree, with their arms spread out and touching each other tip to tip, a direct correlation with the alleged thunderbird photo's description provided by Pearl.[15][5][2]

Finally, the 31st May 1901 edition of The Citizen reported that a man from Maryland, Edward Zimmerman, had killed a "monster" bald eagle measuring around seven feet via gunshots.[16] The most compelling aspect of this story is Zimmerman had the bird be nailed up against his barn, which was located at the cross-roads situated not far from the Pleasant Hill Church.[16][2] The bird's description and its fate clearly match Pearl's description of the photo.[5][2][16]

H.M. Cranmer's Account

Chorvinsky deems that Pearl's source for his article was H.M. Cranmer.[5][2] Cranmer was a lumberjack from the Kettle Creek area of Pennsylvania, who had a clear interest in folktales and the supernatural.[17][18][19][2] He was also listed by investigator Mark A. Hall as claiming to have sighted thunderbirds, Cranmer having discussed his sightings in multiple letters to Fate from December 1950 to the 1960s.[19][2] In September 1963, Cranmer wrote to Fate concerning the thunderbird photograph detailed by Pearl four months prior.[20][5][2] He explained that in 1900, two prospectors killed a thunderbird, before bringing it to Tombstone.[5][2] There, they proceeded to nail it across the wall of the Tombstone Epitaph, before measuring its wingspread at around 36 feet.[5][2] A picture was then provided of six men who outstretched and touched their arms while under the dead bird.[5][2] However, Cranmer then claims a group of actors, dressed as professors, took a photograph with themselves under the bird.[20][5][2] Underneath the photo was a caption saying "Shucks, there is no such bird, never was, and never will be."[20][5][2]

In March 1966, Cranmer again wrote to Fate, where he revealed he heard of the photograph story from a woman in Tombstone.[5][2] He also stated the photo was provided in numerous newspapers, but did not elaborate further.[20][5][2] In 1967, Cranmer passed away from a house fire.[21][5][2] According to an individual who knew Cranmer, the lumberjack had held a copy of a thunderbird photo, and had framed it in his living room.[5][2] Ultimately, the photo did not survive the fire.[5][21][2] Chorvinsky believes that Cranmer may not be the most credible of sources, stating the improbability of a single individual witnessing multiple thunderbirds and other unusual phenomena, in addition to Cranmer never claiming to have possessed a copy.[5][2] He also reckons that Cranmer created this folktale, and elaborated on it once magazine editors became receptive to Cranmer's pet topic, providing additional updates to promote the feeling that they "contributed to the publication".[5][2] It is also suggested that Cranmer knew about the Giant Noble tree photos, incorporating the men's poses into his alleged tale.

However, if Cranmer was truthful, it is possible that he was referring to the 1901 Maryland incident, as that nearly matches up with the Kettle Creek resident's claim the photo originated in 1900.[2][16] However, this also muddies the idea Cranmer told Pearl about the story, seeing as Pearl elaborated on the Tombstone Epitaph report that he claimed occurred in 1886.[2][5] It is perhaps possible therefore that Cranmer's recollection, if valid, merged the key aspects of the Arizona and Maryland incidents together, forming the story reported in Saga with the dates closely matching the Tombstone story.[2][5]

Ivan T. Sanderson's Photo

Another individual claimed to have not only seen the photo, but also stated he possessed a copy of it.[22] Ivan T. Sanderson was a biologist and writer who was also interested in cryptozoology.[23][22] Prior to being involved with the thunderbird mystery, Sanderson had declared that tracks from what appeared to be from a giant penguin situated in Florida were genuine.[24] In actuality, the whole incident was a hoax.[24][22] Nevertheless, Sanderson was a major figure in the development of cryptozoology, including by forming the Society for the Investigation of the Unexplained (SITU) in 1965.[23][22] Sanderson's photo was believed to have been situated at SITU before being declared lost by Pursuit prior to 1972.[25] Volume 5, issue 2 of Pursuit provides a description of this photo, matching the claim the bird's wings were nailed against a barn with the men outstretching their arms and touching one another to help measure the creature.[25][22] With this, Pursuit stated the bird was about 30 to 36 feet, considerably smaller than the 160 feet bird reported by the Tombstone Epitaph.[25][22][1] One Pursuit member described the bird as black, 20-30 feet across, with its head hung over, and with matching details such as the barn and the men's outstretched arms also being listed.[26][25][22][1]

How Sanderson's photo became lost is unclear.[22] It was alleged that it was consumed during a fire at a barn from Sanderson's zoo in 1955.[23][22][21] It was also suggested that two copies became lost under different circumstances, one being destroyed by fire, another taken by "strangers" who never returned it.[21][22] Investigations into Sanderson's photo indicate it was extremely unlikely to have been the one destroyed by fire, as it was known to have existed until at least 1965, a full decade after the barn fire.[22][23] The photo burned by fire most likely refers to the copy said to have been possessed by Cranmer.[22][5] Research also indicates the "strangers", the ones believed to have taken Sanderson's photo, were anything but.[22][25] Both worked for Pursuit, and had taken the photo to Pennsylvania so they could investigate rumoured thunderbird sightings within the area.[25][22] A game warden would later claim the Pursuit members had shown him the photo in question.[25][22] However, neither member found the photo within their archives five years prior, indicating the photo went missing sometime in 1967 or beforehand.[25][22]

John A. Keel, who wrote Strange Creatures from Time and Space, claimed that he had spoken with Sanderson about the photo in either 1965 or 1966, stating that the photo was already missing by this timepoint.[5][22] He claimed he saw it in a 1950s publication detailing thunderbirds, describing the creature as "like a pterodactyl", and that the image reflected the 1880s.[5][22] He also affirms that the bird was nailed to or hanging on a barn, with men standing in front of the corpse.[5] Some have also stated Sanderson displayed the photo during an interview on The Pierre Berton Show, but the episode of that show has also become lost media.[27] However, others have discredited the validity of Sanderson's photo.[22] Some have alleged that the photo was actually a sketch possibly designed by Sanderson himself.[22] Others, such as David Robbins, state they saw an artist's reproduction of the photo that was published in the 1950s.[22] Robbins drew a sketch of this photo, but it notably deviates from the descriptions provided by Cranmer and Sanderson.[28][22] Not only is the thunderbird placed on the ground, only two "cowboys" are present, with one holding a rifle, the other pointing at the dead bird.[22][28] It does however reflect the fact the Tombstone Epitaph's claim that only two men were involved in the encounter and subsequent killing of the bird.[1]

If the photo was sourced from a book on thunderbirds and other cryptids, it most likely originated after 1955.[22] This is because the first book regarded as about cryptids, On the Track of Unknown Animals by Bernard Heuvelman, was published in 1955.[29][22] Therefore, when also considering Pearl's 1963 article, the photo would have surfaced sometime between 1955 to 1963.[22] There have been claims that Sanderson's photo was found, providing images as proof.[30][31] However, aside from the photo completely deviating from all thunderbird photo accounts described thus far, the image was a hoax, being one of two altered photos of the capture of outlaw and train robber John Sontag in 1893.[31][30][22] The initial image was published in issue 19 of Strange Magazine, before being debunked an issue later.[31]

Alleged and Debunked Photos

Other photos, including known hoaxes, are classified under cryptozoology as relevant to the thunderbird photo investigation.[32][22] This is simply because they have allegedly captured media of a massive flying winged entity, Hall defining the thunderbird as an exceptionally strong lifter, with a size of around 15-20 feet and with a hight of four to eight feet, its colour being brown, grey, or black.[32][22] Among these include the Bradford Big Bird, an alleged "hawk-like" bird photographed in Bradford, England and witnessed again by several individuals months later;[33] the Kentucky Big Bird, a seven foot "monster bird" captured within rural Kentucky but was placed in captivity rather than killed;[32] and footage of an alleged pterodactyl captured in the early-1970 over the Yucatan.[34][22] Additionally, cryptids have been utilised as war propaganda; among these include an image with seven men surrounding a statue of a bird, which was included in a propaganda film.[35][22] Whether this was the image individuals are mistaking the alleged thunderbird photo for remains unclear.[22]

Numerous other fake photos have also been debunked over the years.[31][22] One photo depicted a captured pterosaur with its hunters surrounding it. The image was actually created in 2010 by Christopher Smith, only for it to be stolen and passed on as the "real" thunderbird photo.[31] Two alleged photos are of captured pterosaurs during the American Civil War.[31] Despite some plausibility concerning the second image, with Jonathan David Whitcomb initially deeming it genuine only to withdraw his support due to the bird's left wing appearing to have been taken from Walking with Dinosaurs, the reality was that the photos were utilised for his FOX show Skeptoid.[36][37][31]

Meanwhile, Dr. Karl Shuker has debunked various different photos, one of which seemingly featured hunters standing in front of a pteranodon nailed to a barn.[38][31] Shuker concluded that the bird was actually a 1970s model kit from Revell.[38][31] Another photo, depicting hunters with a dead pterodactyl, was debunked because the individual responsible for the manipulation forgot to remove deer hooves situated in the original image.[31] One recreation utilised by issue 21 of Strange Magazine was also floated as the real deal, having been cropped.[31] Ultimately, Thunderbird Photo listed a gallery of fakes, as well as recreations admitted as such by their creators.[31] Finally, the first fake according to Shuker was sent to Strange Magazine and published in Spring 1995 for its 15th issue.[39][31] As before, Shuker found the pterosaur present in the image was included in The Unexplained, an encyclopedia that was published in the 1980s.[39][31] Shuker also theorised that the first known photo of a marabou stork, captured by African tribesmen and spread about thanks to being included in the 1972 edition of Guinness Book of Records, may well have a connection with the Mandela Effect surrounding this mystery.[39][31] Other "trophy" photos, including a 1933 image of a giant devil ray, notably resemble what was described in the thunderbird photo.[31]

Ian Colvin's Kongamato Photo

Another photo categorised under the mystery is Ian Colvin's kongamato photo.[22] Colvin was a correspondent for the newspaper The Daily Telegraph, with him also having an interest in folktales.[40][41][22] During the late-1950s, Colvin was reporting on the flooding of the Zambezi Valley in Mozambique, caused by the establishment of the Kariba Dam.[40][22] While travelling through the Valley, Colvin captured an image of what was initially alleged to be a pterodactyl.[40] It was later reclassified as a kongamato ("breaker of boats"), a cryptid described as pterosaur-like and dwelling within tropical areas of Africa.[42][22] Due to the documentation of the Zambezi Valley floods, it is confirmed that the photo did indeed exist within an issue of The Daily Telegraph.[40][41][22] It also connects with the stories of Cranmer, who like Colvin shared a passion for folktales; but also Sanderson, who claimed in his 1937 book Animal Treasure that he encountered an Olitiau, a cryptid defined as a giant bat, with other sources stating Sanderson recalled witnessing a kongamato, the cryptids being closely linked to the thunderbird and the pterodactyl.[43][44][42][22]

Ultimately, while Colvin's photo did exist, correspondence with The Daily Telegraph revealed the newspaper seldom archived their issues nor photos they published.[45][46][22] The photo has not been found in any known national or photo archives, with it since being declared missing.[22] While photos allegedly taken by Billy Meier were linked to Colvin, they were debunked as images utilised from a book illustrating the pteranodon.[47][48][22] Therefore, despite the links between the photo and the thunderbird mystery, its lost status means that the connection between them cannot yet be established.[22]

Regardless of the legitimacy of the alleged thunderbird photo, no images have been officially been confirmed as the source behind the mystery.[2][22] Whereas some remain adamant that the photo did exist and will resurface eventually, some have concluded that, based on the many debunked images throughout the ages, the image never existed and is instead one of the biggest examples of the Mandela Effect.[2][22][9]



Journey To The Other Side summarising the mystery.

KGUN9 detailing the legend of the Tombstone Thunderbird.

Truth is scarier than fiction detailing the search for the lost thunderbird photo.

External Link


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 26th April 1890 issue of Tombstone Epitaph detailing the story that is central to the thunderbird photo mystery. Retrieved 19th Oct '22
  2. 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 2.15 2.16 2.17 2.18 2.19 2.20 2.21 2.22 2.23 2.24 2.25 2.26 2.27 2.28 2.29 2.30 2.31 2.32 2.33 2.34 2.35 2.36 2.37 2.38 2.39 2.40 2.41 2.42 2.43 2.44 2.45 2.46 r/UnresolvedMysteries post from u/PM_MeYourEars documenting the mystery, including its origins, similar stories, and H.M. Cranmer's account. Retrieved 19th Oct '22
  3. Example of the Tombstone Epitaph story being recirculated, within the 2nd June 1890 edition of St. Paul Daily Globe. Retrieved 19th Oct '22
  4. 4.0 4.1 Front page of Pearl's Saga article. Retrieved 19th Oct '22
  5. 5.00 5.01 5.02 5.03 5.04 5.05 5.06 5.07 5.08 5.09 5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13 5.14 5.15 5.16 5.17 5.18 5.19 5.20 5.21 5.22 5.23 5.24 5.25 5.26 5.27 5.28 5.29 5.30 5.31 5.32 5.33 Strange Magazine where Chorvinsky details the mystery, primarily focusing on Pearl's article and Cranmer's account. Retrieved 19th Oct '22
  6. Legends of America detailing the thunderbird within Native American mythology. Retrieved 19th Oct '22
  7. Weird Arizona summarising Pearl's description of the photo. Retrieved 11th Apr '23
  8. Live Science detailing the pterodactyl. Retrieved 19th Oct '22
  9. 9.0 9.1 Curious Archive detailing the connection between the thunderbird photo and the Mandela Effect. Retrieved 19th Oct '22
  10. January 1882 issue of Arizona Weekly Citizen reporting on a "monster eagle" being killed. Retrieved 19th Oct '22
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 29th March 1882 issue of The New York Times reporting on a "Missouri Monster being spotted. Retrieved 19th Oct '22
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 20th March 1882 issue of Sacramento Daily Record-Union reporting on Campbell and Howard's encounter with a crocodile-like bird. Retrieved 19th Oct '22
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 13.3 1890 issue of a San Diego newspaper reporting on an encounter by the son of Judge Dillar, also referring to a picture of the alleged bird taken in Arizona. Retrieved 19th Oct '22
  14. Illustration utilised in an 1890 issue of The San Francisco Examiner, which may have been the picture the San Diego issue was referring to. Retrieved 19th Oct '22
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 ScienceSource detailing the General Noble and providing the photo which has similarities with the alleged thunderbird photo. Retrieved 19th Oct '22
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 31st May 1901 issue of The Citizen reporting on a "monster" bald eagle that was killed and nailed up against a barn. Retrieved 19th Oct '22
  17. 5th January 1948 issue of The Express where Cranmer details his life, including his time as a lumberjack Retrieved 19th Oct '22
  18. Volume 5, issue 4 of Keystone Folklore Quarterly containing one of Cranmer's folktales, "Two Early Pennsylvania Ballads". Retrieved 19th Oct '22
  19. 19.0 19.1 Issue 115 of Flying Saucer Digest stating Cranmer was named as someone who encountered thunderbirds. Retrieved 19th Oct '22
  20. 20.0 20.1 20.2 20.3 Unexplained! detailing Cramner's letters to Fate, including claiming the photo was a fake and copied in numerous newspapers. Retrieved 19th Oct '22
  21. 21.0 21.1 21.2 21.3 Ancient Astronauts referring to Cranmer's photo of the thunderbird being burned in the house fire that claimed his life. Retrieved 19th Oct '22
  22. 22.00 22.01 22.02 22.03 22.04 22.05 22.06 22.07 22.08 22.09 22.10 22.11 22.12 22.13 22.14 22.15 22.16 22.17 22.18 22.19 22.20 22.21 22.22 22.23 22.24 22.25 22.26 22.27 22.28 22.29 22.30 22.31 22.32 22.33 22.34 22.35 22.36 22.37 22.38 22.39 22.40 22.41 22.42 22.43 22.44 r/UnresolvedMysteries post from u/PM_MeYourEars documenting the mystery, including Sanderson's photo, other incidents connected to the mystery, and Colvin's kongamato photo. Retrieved 19th Oct '22
  23. 23.0 23.1 23.2 23.3 Pseudoarchaeology providing a Sanderson biography, including detailing his cryptozoology passion and setting up of SITU. Retrieved 19th Oct '22
  24. 24.0 24.1 The Tampa Bay Times detailing the Giant Penguin hoax Sanderson was involved in. Retrieved 19th Oct '22
  25. 25.0 25.1 25.2 25.3 25.4 25.5 25.6 25.7 Volume 5, issue 2 of Pursuit detailing Sanderson's photo being taken into Pennsylvania, before becoming lost prior to 1972. Retrieved 19th Oct '22
  26. Mysteries of Canada where a Pursuit member described Sanderson's photo. Retrieved 19th Oct '22
  27. Above Top Secret discussing Sanderson's appearance on The Pierre Berton Show, where he allegedly displayed the thunderbird photo. Retrieved 19th Oct '22
  28. 28.0 28.1 Robbins' sketch of Sanderson's alleged photo, which differs somewhat from various descriptions of it. Retrieved 19th Oct '22
  29. On the Track of Unknown Animals, which is deemed to be the first book about cryptids (since republished in later years). Retrieved 19th Oct '22
  30. 30.0 30.1 The Paranormal Effect detailing the thunderbird mystery and containing a quote regarding a possible real thunderbird photo only for it to be later debunked. Retrieved 19th Oct '22
  31. 31.00 31.01 31.02 31.03 31.04 31.05 31.06 31.07 31.08 31.09 31.10 31.11 31.12 31.13 31.14 31.15 Thunderbird Photo detailing some fake and recreations of the alleged thunderbird photo. Retrieved 19th Oct '22
  32. 32.0 32.1 32.2 Encyclopedia of Strange and Unexplained Physical Phenomena detailing thunderbirds and discussing the Kentucky Big Bird. Retrieved 19th Oct '22
  33. Newspaper clipping reporting on the Bradford Big Bird. Retrieved 19th Oct '22
  34. Summary of the pterodactyl footage taken over the Yucatan. Retrieved 19th Oct '22
  35. Propaganda photo of men standing in front of a large statue of a bird. Retrieved 19th Oct '22
  36. Medium where Whitcomb supported, then withdrew support, regarding the legitimacy of a pterosaur image. Retrieved 19th Oct '22
  37. Skeptoid where Brian Dunning debunks two pterosaur images, noting they were from the show of the same name. Retrieved 19th Oct '22
  38. 38.0 38.1 Shuker Nature where Shuker debunks several alleged thunderbird photos. Retrieved 19th Oct '22
  39. 39.0 39.1 39.2 Shuker Nature where Shuker detailed the first known debunked thunderbird photo. Retrieved 19th Oct '22
  40. 40.0 40.1 40.2 40.3 In Search of Prehistoric Survivors detailing Colvin capturing a photo what appeared to be a pterodactyl or kongamato. Retrieved 19th Oct '22
  41. 41.0 41.1 27th December 1958 issue of The Illustrated London News detailing Colvin capturing what was alleged to have been pterodactyl. Retrieved 19th Oct '22
  42. 42.0 42.1 The Pine Barren Institute detailing the kongamato and Sanderson's alleged encounter with one. Retrieved 19th Oct '22
  43. Animal Treasure detailing Sanderson's alleged encounter with an Olitiau. Retrieved 19th Oct '22
  44. On the Track of Unknown Animals detailing the olitiau, noting how both it and the kongamato are connected to the pterodactyl. Retrieved 19th Oct '22
  45. Email from The Daily Telegraph confirming that chances of recovering the issue with Colvin's photo is slim due to its low archiving of its papers. Retrieved 19th Oct '22
  46. Email from The Daily Telegraph confirming that its photo collection from the period when Colvin's photo surfaced contains very few records. Retrieved 19th Oct '22
  47. Encyclopédie du Paranormal discussing the possibilities that Meier's alleged photos are linked to Colvin's (forum in French).
  48. A debunking of Meier's images. Retrieved 19th Oct '22