2022 UEFA Champions League Final (lost CCTV footage of crowd incidents during international football match; 2022)
On 28th May 2022, the 2022 UEFA Champions League Final between Liverpool and Real Madrid commenced at the Stade de France. While the game proved uncontroversial, with Real Madrid winning 1-0 to earn its 14th title, it was marred by scenes of extreme violence and disorderly conduct pre- and post-match, resulting in around 238 injuries and 105 arrests. The carnage, caused by insufficient crowd control measures and disastrous routing towards the ground, produced a severe blockage outside the stadium and delayed kick-off for 36 minutes. A failure in policing also enabled local gangs to commit widespread attacks, muggings and sexual assaults on fans leaving the ground post-match. UEFA and French authorities initially blamed Liverpool fans for attempting to breach the stadium with fake tickets, but official reports declared there were inadequate safety and security provisions heading into the match. French authorities were also heavily criticised for failing to obtain footage from the Stade de France's 260 CCTV cameras, which let the "extremely violent" recordings be automatically erased a week following the incidents. Most relevant public transport CCTV footage has also become permanently lost.
France was never originally considered to host the 2022 Champions League Final. On 24th September 2019, the UEFA Executive Committee appointed the Krestovsky Stadium in Saint Petersburg to host the 2021 Final, with its only competition being Munich's Allianz Arena. Allianz was instead selected to host 2022. As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, host re-arrangements meant Saint Petersburg would instead play host to the 2022 edition. But on 24th February 2022, Russia's invasion of Ukraine prompted UEFA to strip all upcoming hosting duties from either country. The replacement 2022 host was the Stade de France in Saint-Denis, which had previously hosted the 2000 and 2006 editions, and UEFA Euro 2016 matches. With a maximum seating arrangement of 80,698, it was hoped Stade de France would sufficiently demonstrate France's organisational skills and security, especially as the stadium was chosen to host athletics and rugby-7 competitions for the upcoming 2024 Summer Olympics. The stadium was affected by the 2015 Paris terror attacks when three suicide bombers failed to breach the ground during an international friendly between France and Germany, resulting in a bystander's death.
As 28th May 2022 approached, UEFA tasked the French Football Federation (FFF) and local authorities to organise proceedings. With about three months to prepare, the FFF's original crowd control approach was relatively simple, mandating that fans of each club would reach the stadium from the northern or southern ends. This would enable everyone to travel safely without the threat of bottlenecking, crushes, or clashes with rival fans. However, the southern route had previously suffered security holes. During the 2016 Coupe de France Final between Olympique de Marseille and Paris St. Germain, inadequate safety provisions meant frequent clashes between fans, bottlenecks, and a major failure to detect contraband despite extensive security checks, which fuelled the resulting violence. The 2022 Final on 7th May featuring Nice against Nantes was also hit with bottleneck problems when Nice fans were misdirected to the wrong turnstiles. Said Final was used to identify security and organisational concerns that could affect the Champions League Final.
As the Champions League Final was obviously a bigger event, French police concluded five days before kick-off that the southern route was inadequate. Thus, Liverpool fans would instead be instructed to harness an alternative route. This course would involve walking through the streets of Saint-Denis before reaching an A1 subway that would directly guide them to the southwest side of the stadium, with them also travelling through a checkpoint designated as Additional Security Perimeter entrance 3 (ASP3). Meanwhile, Real Madrid fans would travel through the usual northern route. Both sides were also allocated "fan zones", at the Cours de Vincennes and Parc de la Maison d'éducation de la Légion d'honneur respectively. Liverpool fans going the Cours de Vincennes route were expected to travel seven miles towards either the La Plaine or Stade de France-Saint-Denis train stations. In contrast, the anticipated 6,000 Madrid supporters travelling through Parc de la Maison could reach their destination in 15-20 minutes via walking or harnessing public transport. With at least 7,000 police officers protecting the zones and stadium, 260 CCTV cameras at the stadium to record and deter criminal actions, and the Liverpool fan zone boasting a capacity of 44,000, it appeared security was adequate for the event. However, reality proved significantly different.
Crowd Control Fiasco
For the majority of Real Madrid fans, the path towards Stade de France saw them reach their seats by the planned kick-off time of 9 p.m. CET. However, security and organisational flaws did emerge; some French individuals infiltrated the zone to commit assaults and theft of valuables. Available footage showed some of these men being arrested and battered by riot police. Problems also arose during ticket inspections, which were described as slow and sometimes inaccurate. The main cause surrounded using pen markers, which meant it often took minutes to verify tickets instead of the usual seconds, with further delays caused by frequent false positives of otherwise legitimate tickets. As inspections were slower than anticipated, it triggered bottlenecks caused by those arriving by subway exceeding the number entering the stadium. According to one eyewitness, the threat of human crushes was high. Amidst the panic within the narrow walkway, thieves pickpocketed mobile phones, some of which contained e-tickets. Others ended up off-course, alongside lost Liverpool fans.
Things were exceptionally worse on the Liverpool route, which began with the railway system. The Liaison Group meeting held on 3rd March between UEFA and key French stakeholders concluded that Liverpool fans would travel via two lines; RER B to La Plaine, and RER D to Stade de France-Saint-Denis. However, B was hit by both engineering works and sudden strike action. Thus, the decision was made to redirect most fans to D, resulting in around 36,000 arriving via that route compared to just 6,200 from B. Worse still, the fan zone was also dangerously overcrowded, with an estimated 50,000 present. The zone consisted of fans with tickets, and supporters seeking to potentially buy last-minute tickets or at least enjoy the atmosphere, watch the game via big screens, and tour France. The UCLF22 Independent Review later determined the closure of B was unnecessary, as despite the strike action it had only lost 20% of its capacity. The supporters were then directed through the Saint-Denis streets. Because the re-routing was hastily conducted, there was inadequate signage directing people to the new course. One road sign also misled spectators into taking the wrong course towards the stadium. Other fans became completely lost and ended up with Real Madrid counterparts in a different queue altogether.
Most fans travelled through the narrow A1 subway. It soon became apparent it was inadequate to funnel through excessive numbers of supporters, something that also plagued the 2016 Coupe de France Final and had been raised in a meeting a day prior. The subway became dangerously congested as photos on the day illustrated. By around 6 p.m. CET, the supporters were only metres from the stadium. Despite this, most would wait hours before they could gain entry. Had RER B been properly utilised, fans would have been split between two checkpoint perimeters, which would have enabled stewards to check tickets efficiently without fear of bottlenecks. However, with B deemphasised, tens of thousands were approaching the RER D checkpoint ASP3 and current D stewardship, police and the five-lane system were woefully outnumbered, inexperienced and unprepared to deal with the increased capacity. Worse still, panic had arisen among UEFA the FFF, and French authorities that up to 50,000 were planning to enter with counterfeit or no tickets. Thus, when also considering the lingering threat of terrorism, ticket and security checks had intensified.
Travel between the subway to the stadium soon grounded to a halt. Inspections were slow like on the Real Madrid side, and while some unauthorised fans were detected, the checkpoint lacked proper means to remove them from the vicinity. By 6:19 pm, a massive bottleneck containing around 15,000 formed, which worsened 20 minutes later and forced some spectators onto a nearby road. Conditions became especially cramped by the presence of parked police vans. Designed to prevent vehicle terrorist incidents like the 2016 Nice lorry attack, it also resulted in supporters being boxed in. Suddenly, the possibility of a human crush was rife, fuelling intense panic within the queue. Among those in the bottleneck included some individuals who attended Hillsborough Stadium on 15th April 1989, which saw the deaths of 96 Liverpool fans from a human crush at the Leppings Lane stand. Some were also forced to climb over a wall which barricaded the checkpoint, creating the risk of people being trampled. Others were apparently redirected to the Additional Security Perimeter entrance 4 (ASP4), which despite being considerably safer and able to deal with larger-than-expected crowds, was barely utilised for the event.
By 6:39 p.m., police and stewards achieved a consensus that the checkpoint could no longer cope with the overcrowding. Thus, it appeared there was little choice but to cease checks, allowing everyone in. While this prevented a human crush from unfolding, it naturally raised major security issues. While there ultimately were no terrorists in the vicinity, it allowed ticketless supporters, locals, and immigrants to freely move to metres outside the stadium. The local residents had bypassed ASP checks via the Avenue du Général de Gaulle, which was allowed to remain open despite the hazard it posed and with little police presence. Others got through via shops, public buildings and even a construction site. As fans reached the turnstiles, they were shocked to discover they had been shut. Because ASP3 had failed to prevent unauthorised individuals from reaching the stadium, police and stewards closed the turnstiles to assess the situation. Suddenly, the human crush threat returned as queueing fans began to be pushed into the stadium's turnstiles, gates, and fences. At least 400 locals also committed widespread assault, muggings, and theft within the stranded crowd, including to obtain tickets and phones.
Some individuals tried to breach the stadium by climbing the adjacent fences, queue jumping, and attempting to bypass stewards. Stewards responded by tackling these individuals to the ground, while riot police were called in response to extensive pressure on the turnstiles. At each gate, riot police pushed back crowds with their batons and riot shields. But, in a move which subsequently received widespread condemnation, riot police also started dispersing tear gas and pepper spray indiscriminately. Men, women, children, and even police officers and stewards were affected by numerous tear gas attacks, which were directed at individuals regardless of their complicity in deviancy, age or whether they lived with disabilities. Despite this, little was done to resolve most assaults and robberies in the vicinity. A similar situation affected lost Liverpool and Real Madrid fans who were redirected to a northwest entry that also became affected by bottlenecks, crime and police brutality.
Ultimately, with approximately 15,000 still outside the stadium, it became apparent the match could not safely kick off at 9 p.m.. Thus, it was delayed initially by 15 minutes before it eventually commenced at 9:37 p.m., despite the fact some fans had still not been allowed in. Some did not enter the stadium until half-time. In total, 75,000 were in attendance. However, more than 2,700 Liverpool fans who had purchased legitimate tickets, many of whom were affected by muggings, were turned away. The match itself passed without incident, which saw Real Madrid win 1-0 courtesy of a 59th minute Vinícius Júnior goal. Concerned over possible hooliganism from Merseyside fans, riot police guarded the Liverpool side. No trouble was reported, though whether riot police presence was necessary remains controversial.
Crowd congestion still proved problematic post-match. Some gates remained locked, with footage showing fans being forced to climb over them in order to leave. As before, bottlenecks emerged as the paths proved too narrow, especially in the subway. But as spectators of both sides entered the streets, they realised that armed local gangs were waiting for them.
Suddenly, various fans were attacked and mugged in what UFC fighter Paddy Pimblett described as "something like the film The Purge". According to Pimblett, he witnessed armed gangs totalling 30 men committing widespread muggings, including pinning victims down and slicing the straps of valuables like handbags and watches. Former Liverpool player and LFC TV pundit Jason McAteer's account was especially harrowing; his wife Lucy and elder son Harry attempted to leave via bus, only to find it had moved because gangs had tried to throw bricks at it. Suddenly, Lucy was ambushed from behind by five men, who mugged her for her watch. Harry attempted to retaliate only for the five men to viciously assault him in an attempt to obtain his phone. Ultimately, with help from some Real Madrid fans, both managed to escape with minor injuries and trauma. Several of McAteer's friends were also attacked while heading back to the Metro. Those travelling to the nearby train stations and car parks were the most likely targets of the gangs.
Patrice Ribeiro, head of the police union Synergie-Officiers, stated the situation went out of control as local deviants were soon joined by international and other ultra-violent groups. The criminals showed no mercy and targeted vulnerable groups like children, and old and disabled people in rampant attacks that saw many lose valuables, clothes and other belongings. Ted Morris, the Chairman of the Liverpool Disabled Supporters Association, stated many Liverpool fans with disabilities were traumatised by gas attacks, near-human crushes and post-match assaults. Many women and girls also found themselves targeted for sexual assault by local youths. At least two police officers confirmed this, with one recalling women being groped and having their handbags stolen. Morris also reported at least one disabled woman was sexually assaulted at the event. Other individuals were taken to hospital with stab wounds.
Most accounts shared one factor: that there was hardly any police and steward activity as these crimes were being committed. As a Real Madrid statement summarised, most fans were left "abandoned and defenceless", with Morris claiming most disabled fans received no support from relevant authorities and ended up completely vulnerable to the gangs. Ribeiro recalled that policing became difficult because as soon as officers arrived, the perpetrators started merging seamlessly with the fans. But some accounts also accused police officers of failing to take action despite witnessing criminal acts. In total, 238 people were injured while 105 were arrested. The majority of incidents occurred in Saint-Denis. The fact that no fatalities occurred was considered miraculous by most sources as tragedies almost seemed inevitable under the circumstances.
Investigation and Deleted CCTV Footage
The inadequate crowd control provisions before and after the Final received near-universal condemnation, with the usage of pepper spray and tear gas triggering significant scorn. Comparisons to the Hillsborough disaster were made, with some who were in attendance on that fateful day stating it brought back terrible flashbacks. Liverpool, Real Madrid and the British government soon demanded answers to why the fans were left completely vulnerable to potential human crushes, excessive police force, and local gangs.
Following the match, UEFA, the FFF, and the French government defended police actions at the event. The initial explanation for the game's delay was the late arrival of fans, which was then changed to a "security issue"; UEFA and the FFF later claimed that between 30,000-50,000 Liverpool supporters had shown up without tickets or were affected by an extensive counterfeit ticket scheme that affected 70% of supporters. France's interior minister Gérald Darmanin primarily blamed Liverpool's paper tickets for the large-scale fraud, something he believed only affected English clubs. Notably, Liverpool's official tickets were paper-based, while Real Madrid fans were allocated electronic ones. Darmanin also insisted that the tear gas, while excessively dispersed, was necessary to ensure human crushes did not materialise at the gates and also accused some supporters of attacking stewards. Sports minister Amélie Oudéa-Castéra criticised stadium organisation, and Liverpool for failing to properly direct its fans to the ground.
These comments provoked anger from Liverpool and their fans, with some claiming that it resembled the victim-blaming following the Hillsborough disaster. While tear gas usage could certainly be justified on otherwise rowdy supporters, numerous accusations arose that gas and pepper spray were indiscriminately used on innocent and vulnerable individuals. Additionally, Liverpool fans' behaviour was defended by Merseyside Police, who deemed it "exemplary" considering the dangerous situation involved. Further, an investigation by The New York Times concerning illegitimate tickets questioned Darmanin's 30,000-40,000 claim, stating its own investigation into official numbers found only 2,589 tickets were actually denied. While it notes that this still exceeds the typical levels of previous Finals, there is also the possibility that the number included some tickets that were repeatedly denied. All this led to This is Anfield to accuse UEFA of forging a cover-up.
On 4th June, UEFA officially apologised to Liverpool and Real Madrid fans, subsequently promising an independent review. A French Senate hearing was also conducted. The UCLF22 Independent Review was chaired by Dr. Tiago Brandão Rodrigues and focused on the failure of crowd control measures and the police force. Published on 13th February 2023, it raised points already discussed in this article like the unnecessary RER B closure and the inexperienced stewardship. Security concerns with ASP3 were raised pre-game, and it was also discovered UEFA produced a document about the late fans situation days before matchday. The review declared the fake ticket narrative as "reprehensible".
Furthermore, the panel agreed that the Liverpool supporters were unfairly treated by police and criticised the poor rationale for utilising tear gas and other excessive force. During its investigation, it found riot police had based their crowd control approach on two events involving supposed hooliganism from English fans: The England-Russia violence that occurred in Marseille during Euro 2016; and, shockingly, the Hillsborough disaster. As was found in the Hillsborough inquest, the 96 victims of the disaster were unlawfully killed following lapses in police and crowd control measures, with Liverpool fans absolved of blame. Thus, this revelation triggered outrage as it subsequently meant police control was based on the debunked narrative that Hillsborough was caused by hooliganism.
The review also wanted to examine the footage captured by the 260 Stade de France CCTV cameras. Considering most incidents surrounding human crushes, gang crime and police force were reported at the stadium, the recordings would help verify the incidents and potentially justify the riot police's methods in avoiding excessive pressure on the turnstiles. It is known that the FFF's head of institutional relations, Erwan Le Prévost, had viewed what he defined as "extremely violent" surveillance images. However, more controversy arose when it was revealed the CCTV footage no longer existed. According to Prévost during the French Senate hearing, the FFF needed a public prosecutor to request the tapes be seized. As this did not occur, the footage lingered until a week following the event, before it was automatically deleted. The news provoked further outrage on how critical evidence was left to self-destruct, with some also claiming the incident was very similar to stolen CCTV footage of Hillsborough. Additionally, the independent review concluded that UEFA, the FFF, and the French legal system failed to properly request the tapes and also criticised Stade de France for not properly storing the recordings.
Other CCTV sources were examined. On 11th June, the Daily Mail reported that whereas Metro line footage had already been deleted, surveillance recordings from Société Nationale des Chemins de Fer Français (SCNF) cameras had been securely recovered. SCNF and Régie Autonome des Transports Parisiens (RATP) were the primary train operators harnessed for the Final, and may have recorded deliquency as people made their way from RER stations to Stade de France. SNCF in particular had placed cameras near the Stade de France. According to a source from the Bobigny judiciary, the recordings were obtained a few days prior, and may well have captured additional examples of unlawful violence from police, fans, and gangs. But during a French Senate hearing, Sylvie Charles of SCNF brand Transilien revealed the SCNF recordings were partially lost as they had begun to auto-delete on 1st June, when the footage was finally requested. Meanwhile, RATP's Philippe Martin revealed his company also received a late request for footage retention. Unlike SCNF, which kept its videos for beyond the usual three days in response to trouble reported at Saint-Denis, RATP had no compulsion to retain its footage. Thus, all RATP surveillance recordings are completely lost. The surviving SCNF footage did capture some minor incidents, but nothing of significant importance.
The independent review ultimately cleared Liverpool fans of any blame for the crowd control fiasco. Instead, it partially held the FFF and French Police responsible but concluded UEFA, as event organisers, was the most accountable. It declared that it was exceptionally fortunate nobody passed away, as the lapses in routing, crowd control measures, stewardship and policing meant fans from both clubs were at risk. Similarly, the French Senate stated in its Champions League Final: An Unavoidable Fiasco report that not only had police used excessive force on innocent and otherwise vulnerable people, it had also failed to tackle the gang attacks that occurred before and after the match. The independent review published 21 recommendations for safety and security management at future UEFA Finals. Among them included host stadiums being designed with security and crowd guidance in mind; that crowd control measures are focused on guaranteeing security over anticipating disorderly conduct; additional safe accessibility services for disabled fans; ensuring that all relevant CCTV footage is properly retained; and mandating electronic tickets. A year following the incidents, UEFA published its latest major events security plan.
UEFA also announced that all 19,618 Liverpool fans who purchased official club tickets, and some Real Madrid supporters would be entitled to full refunds. This was rejected by Real Madrid, who deemed all its fans were eligible for refunds among other compensation as they felt everyone was affected by the delays and security lapses. UEFA and the FFF have additionally been criticised for last-minute demands to redact key evidence and hide the identities of involved staff from the review report. In September 2023, former UEFA operations director Sharon Burkhalter-Lau alleged some UEFA-provided evidence was completely false. She claimed the organisation had manipulated evidence so that it blamed UEFA Events and protected the interests of its safety and security unit, which had failed to attend meetings regarding the Final's safety measures. UEFA later denied the allegations, including rubbishing whether its actions were motivated by the friendship between its President, Aleksander Ceferin, and the unit's leader, Zeljko Pavlica.
Because of the failure to obtain the recordings, the Stade de France CCTV footage captured that day will remain permanently irrecoverable, and provides a key lesson regarding the importance of security tape retention and preservation. A similar fate befell the RATP, Metro and most SNCF footage, the surviving clips from the latter having not yet been publicly released. Nevertheless, the numerous fan recordings plus tapes captured by media outlets and other official sources that have since been shared on social media platforms like YouTube, help to illustrate the chaotic nature outside Stade de France from various perspectives.
- Bradford City vs Lincoln City (partially found footage of Football League Third Division match; 1985)
- Hillsborough Disaster (partially lost CCTV recordings and documents of football stadium disaster; 1989)
- Serbia vs Albania (found footage of abandoned UEFA Euro 2016 qualifying match; 2014)
- The Athletic documenting the chain of events that unfolded and how it was a miracle nobody perished as a result. Retrieved 27th Oct '23
- ESPN reporting on the Stade de France taking on the 2022 UEFA Champions League Final hosting duties after Saint Petersburg was stripped of them. Retrieved 27th Oct '23
- Archived UEFA announcing Saint Petersburg as host for the 2021 UEFA Champions League Final. Retrieved 27th Oct '23
- UEFA listing the two stadiums interested in hosting the 2021 UEFA Champions League Final. Retrieved 27th Oct '23
- BBC Sport reporting on changed UEFA Champions League Final hosts following the COVID-19 pandemic. Retrieved 27th Oct '23
- Stadium Guide summarising the Stade de France and its history. Retrieved 27th Oct '23
- Inside the Games reporting on Olympic preparation plans for the Stade de France. Retrieved 27th Oct '23
- ESPN documenting the 2015 suicide bombings near and at the Stade de France. Retrieved 27th Oct '23
- UCLF22 Independent Review containing 220 pages investigating the failures in crowd control at the event. Retrieved 27th Oct '23
- The Guardian providing a visual summary of the incidents and how they occurred. Retrieved 27th Oct '23
- Starter Soccer explaining the need to separate football fans at stadiums and tactics done to achieve this. Retrieved 27th Oct '23
- France24 reporting on the incidents at the 2016 Coupe de France Final. Retrieved 27th Oct '23
- Counter Terror Business assessing how organisation for the Final went disastrously wrong. Retrieved 27th Oct '23
- France24 reporting on the security measures in place heading into the Final. Retrieved 27th Oct '23
- Independent reporting on Stade de France's CCTV footage being deleted. Retrieved 27th Oct '23
- BBC News reporting on the Liverpool atmosphere and travel plans heading into the Final. Retrieved 27th Oct '23
- The Guardian reporting on Darmanin's comments surrounding the organisational failures and fake tickets at the game. Retrieved 27th Oct '23
- The Guardian reporting on terrifying accounts of the incidents from the Liverpool Disabled Supporters Association, an MP, Liverpool, and a Real Madrid supporter. Retrieved 27th Oct '23
- The National News reporting on around 50,000 being present at the Liverpool fan zone. Retrieved 27th Oct '23
- History documenting the 2016 Nice lorry attack. Retrieved 27th Oct '23
- BBC News summarising the Hillsborough stadium disaster and the conclusion that the 96 fans were unlawfully killed. Retrieved 27th Oct '23
- Associated Press reporting on some of the incidents it captured of the event, primarily outside the stadium. Retrieved 27th Oct '23
- Evoke reporting on McAteer's account of the post-match incidents. Retrieved 27th Oct '23
- BBC Sport reporting on the Final. Retrieved 27th Oct '23
- BBC News reporting on Pimblett and Ribeiro's accounts of the incidents. Retrieved 27th Oct '23
- This is Anfield reporting on the various criticisms from prominent Liverpool and sports personalities. Retrieved 27th Oct '23
- BFM TV reporting on Morris' account of crimes against disabled fans, including sexual assault (article in French). Retrieved 27th Oct '23
- Le Figaro reporting on witnesses' accounts of sexual assaults on women and girls (article in French). Retrieved 27th Oct '23
- The Spectator reporting on allegations that some Liverpool fans were sexually assaulted. Retrieved 27th Oct '23
- BBC Sport reporting on Real Madrid's official statement on the events that transpired. Retrieved 27th Oct '23
- The Washington Post reporting on injuries and arrests during the incidents. Retrieved 27th Oct '23
- Independent reporting on outrage over usage of tear gas and calls for an investigation. Retrieved 27th Oct '23
- Sky News reporting on fans who attended the Final stating the incidents brought back Hillsborough disaster flashbacks. Retrieved 27th Oct '23
- inews reporting on Liverpool demanding a formal investigation into the incidents. Retrieved 27th Oct '23
- Daily Mirror reporting on British government officials demanding an official investigation. Retrieved 27th Oct '23
- BBC News reporting on Darmanin defending police actions at the event. Retrieved 27th Oct '23
- The New York Times reporting that only 2,589 tickets were actually declared fake at the event. Retrieved 27th Oct '23
- The Guardian reporting on Liverpool's Andy Robertson defending his club's fans from accusations. Retrieved 27th Oct '23
- Merseyside Police official statement on the 2022 Champions League Final. Retrieved 27th Oct '23
- This is Anfield accusing UEFA of covering up the incidents at the event. Retrieved 27th Oct '23
- Independent reporting on UEFA apologising to Liverpool and Real Madrid fans and promising an independent review. Retrieved 27th Oct '23
- The Guardian reporting on the deletion of "extremely violent" Stade de France CCTV footage as detailed in the French Senate hearing. Retrieved 27th Oct '23
- The Guardian reporting on the revelation UEFA produced a document about late fans before the match occurred. Retrieved 27th Oct '23
- This is Anfield reporting on the key findings of the independent review. Retrieved 27th Oct '23
- Associated Press reporting on Euro 2016 fan violence between England and Russia. Retrieved 27th Oct '23
- ESPN reporting on the Hillsborough inquest concluding the 96 Hillsborough disaster victims were unlawfully killed. Retrieved 27th Oct '23
- This is Anfield reporting on the lost CCTV footage and comparing it to the stolen Hillsborough tapes. Retrieved 27th Oct '23
- Daily Mail reporting on the possibility that SCNF footage had been recovered. Retrieved 27th Oct '23
- L'Equipe reporting on most train CCTV footage becoming permanently lost (article in French). Retrieved 27th Oct '23
- Get Football News France reporting on the survival status of SNCF and RATP CCTV footage. Retrieved 27th Oct '23
- Euronews reporting on the independent review's conclusion UEFA was primarily responsible for the failures in security. Retrieved 27th Oct '23
- The Guardian reporting on the independent review's 21 recommendations for enhanced Finals safety and security. Retrieved 27th Oct '23
- ESPN reporting on UEFA's security plans for future major events. Retrieved 27th Oct '23
- Sky Sports reporting on 19,618 Liverpool fans being offered full refunds by UEFA. Retrieved 27th Oct '23
- Independent reporting on Real Madrid rejecting the partial refund offered by UEFA. Retrieved 27th Oct '23
- The Guardian reporting on Burkhalter-Lau's allegations that UEFA provided "untrue" evidence at the independent inquiry. Retrieved 27th Oct '23
- SportsPro reporting on UEFA denying Burkhalter-Lau's allegations. Retrieved 27th Oct '23